Mid-term Evaluation of Integrating community-based adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Project

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2020, Bangladesh
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
05/2019
Completion Date:
07/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
29,000

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Title Mid-term Evaluation of Integrating community-based adaptation into Afforestation and Reforestation Project
Atlas Project Number: 75892
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2020, Bangladesh
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 07/2019
Planned End Date: 05/2019
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
Evaluation Budget(US $): 29,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 29,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title:
Evaluation Type: Mid-term Review
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: EA
GEF Phase: GEF-1
GEF Project ID:
PIMS Number: 0
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: BANGLADESH
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

The beneficiary selection process used in 2017 was short and not up to the mark. Some of the agricultural beneficiaries were found to be economically well off than what was targeted. In 2017, the distribution of the supports was delayed and in turn missed the right crop calendar. Hence, it is recommended to select beneficiaries following the standard procedure and crop support should be done on right time so that it could follow crop calendar.

2

The agriculture support given to each beneficiary varies from 6,000 to 9,000 BDT. The total amount received by the beneficiaries did not agree with the budgeted total support for the year 2017. The shortfall has been explained as expenditures for the payment of VAT, audit costs, etc. The VAT should have been borne by the suppliers. These costs should not have been deducted from the supports given to the beneficiaries. Hence it is recommended to resolve this issue of VAT, audit costs once for all.

3

Decrease in number of 3-F model to 50 hectares, decreasing the depth will save some budget allocations. In worse scenarios, if even 50ha suitable land for the 3-F models are not available in landless people’s sites then it should be done only in the land areas available. Similarly, reduction of number of Killa and the three headings of NGO (Internal program monitoring, documentation and video filming & report preparation), will generate a good amount of money. It is recommended that these could be used for supporting monitoring activities, impact studies, establishing endowment for CMCs and FRPGs and also increase livelihood activities.

4

Mission found that duck mortality was high in the first year, because of probable infection and exhaustion from long distance transportation. In the second year in some areas, when locally purchased and vaccinated ducklings were distributed, mortality rate was very low. Hence, it is recommended to purchase locally pre-vaccinated ducklings of at least 2 months old, for distribution to beneficiaries. It is also recommended to explore other species that are feasible for the local saline environment to diversify livelihood options.

5

This project largely involves community and members of the communities. Thus, at the very beginning of the project, a good socio-economic survey to generate a good baseline information of the beneficiaries is essential, to support project formulation, its implementation process and for the analyses of impacts of interventions. The project generated some baseline information but these are inadequate. The NGO engaged in early 2019, has been given the responsibly to generate the baseline information. The NGO engaged is likely to collect information of beneficiaries of livelihood programs of mostly of the FRPG (Forest Resource Protection Group) members, identified as such. The NOG may not collect the socio-economic information of beneficiaries under 3-F model, agriculture, fisheries and livestock. Under such situation, the NGO may be entrusted with the responsibilities to collect baseline information of all the beneficiaries of all sectors such as forest, agriculture, fisheries and livestock. This will be essential to examine the impact of interventions.

6

Identification of the members of the FRPG (Forest Resource Protection Group) and formation of these groups have been entrusted with the NGO engaged on December 15, 2018. The project envisaged that 40 FRPGs will be formed for 8 Upazilla. The main duties and responsibilities of these FRPGs are to protect the coastal plantations. The project stated that these FRPG members will share the benefits from the coastal afforestation in lieu of their protection affords. Since harvest of tangible benefits, except NTFP, from the coastal forest is prohibited by law, sharing of (tangible) benefits will be too low to cater the required.

Under such situation, some sort of “Micro Capital Grant” or “Endowment Fund” has to be created. The interest of this fund may be used to pay off the remunerations of the FRPG members, to ensure the sustainability of this FRPG concept. Instead of forming 40 FRPGs, their number may be reduced with 30 members in each (may be to 14 FRPG or so) depending on the extent of forest areas under the project in 8 Upazillas. Similarly, there is no source to meet the operational costs of CMCs. Portion of the interest of this (endowment) fund may also be used for this purpose as well.

7

The project has the target to construct 10 Killas on government Khash land, near the cyclone shelters for the safety of the cattle of the people, coming to the cyclone shelters. It appears that suitable sites, that are Khash land and near to cyclone shelter, are not available. Under such situation, it is recommended that Killa construction target may be reduced and the balance money be diverted to livelihood activity. Since Killa will be of use only as cattle shelter during cyclones and storm surges; it is recommended that, multiple-use structures may be built, which will shelter cattle at ground floor, people on upper floors, during cyclone and tidal surges, while during normal situation may be used as school or moktob (religious school for minor boys and girls), etc.

8

Mission observed two types of sluice gates i.e. manually operated and flap type, which are operated by the tide current. This project aims to repair and bring back some of the non-operational sluice gates to operation, to benefit the beneficiary farmers to protect their agricultural fields from saline water intrusion and irrigation. The manually operated sluice gates may be repaired and brought to operation while the flap types need upgrading to manually operated ones. The interest of this project is to support the agriculture, by storing fresh water for irrigation and prohibit the saline water to enter the canal. On the other hand, the interest of the fishermen’s group is to have the water running regularly in the canal. Thus, the interest of these two groups are conflicting. The MTR mission came to know that in Monpura, Union has been leasing canal including sluice gate area to fisherman for the personal gain (shared by several local influential). It is also known that there used to be a sluice gate and canal management committee in the past. In the interest of the project and for the benefit of the farmers, it is recommended to reform or revive these sluice gate management committees for the operation of the sluice gates and these should be legalized through Water Development Board, since these sluice gates are under the jurisdiction of the Water Development Board.

9

Project covers wide range of area with poor accessibility. It needs to strengthen the monitoring and feedback mechanism. Under this situation, it is recommended to conduct frequent monitoring. But the present budget for this is insufficient. To accomplish these, the budget for this item should be enhanced. More of the manpower and logistics, such as motor cycles, etc. be enhanced at field level, to ensure frequent monitoring.

10

Since the project implementation was delayed in the beginning and due to that several works are yet to be implemented. Some of these are very time consuming and the remaining time may not be sufficient to complete the work. Hence it is recommended to make one year no cost extension of the project period.

11

Many of the project activities such as 3F model, community center, killa, etc. are closely connected to land. Under the prevailing complex land tenure situations, it is recommended that while implementing these activities, all concerned need to be thorough and conversant about the prevailing land laws. While implementing the activity of establishing community center, it is recommended that the construction of the building should be good enough to endure cyclones and tidal surges.

12

Under the livelihood component, it is recommended to explore the possibility of private public partnership (PPP) and attempts be taken to attract private companies in developing market linkage for the beneficiaries of the project.

13

Some of the recommendation above under outcomes will also contribute to make intervention sustainable e.g. creation of endowment fund will support continuation of FRPGs and CMC activities beyond project life, formation of users committee for management of sluice gate and canal.

For present and also future benefit, it is recommended to establish Climate Adaptation Hub or Climate Adaptation Learning Centre’ so that all the relevant knowledge products, proven technology, innovation, Cyclone Preparedness Programs etc. related to coastal climate adaptation will be demonstrated in that center and could be used by the coastal communities, students as well as other stakeholders utilize knowledge for generating adaptation to cyclone and storm surges and also to reduce their climate vulnerabilities.

1. Recommendation:

The beneficiary selection process used in 2017 was short and not up to the mark. Some of the agricultural beneficiaries were found to be economically well off than what was targeted. In 2017, the distribution of the supports was delayed and in turn missed the right crop calendar. Hence, it is recommended to select beneficiaries following the standard procedure and crop support should be done on right time so that it could follow crop calendar.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24]

Partially agreed. The project was officially launched in March 2017 after government’s endorsement of the technical project proposal (TPP) and formal inception workshop. After project inception, it took another 3-4 months to deploy the Project Directors of implementing Govt. partners, following the government procedure. Soon after deployment of partners project directors, it also required some time for planning. Therefore, it was a bit difficult to follow the crop calendar year properly in the 1st year. In addition, due to time constraint and little availability of Upazila-based Government official, beneficiary selection was hampered in some cases. However, standard beneficiary selection criteria described in the Prodoc was followed.  From 2018, the 2nd year of the project, all procedures of beneficiary selection were properly followed to implement the activities including crop calendar year. The implementation guideline for partners was formulated at the beginning of 2018 for ensuring timely project implementation with quality, following the crop calendar. UNDP will also take this as a lesson learned to inform our targeting in the future.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Finalize a partners workplan for beneficiary selection and crop calendar
[Added: 2019/07/24]
Partners Project Directors 2018/01 Completed Workplan was finalized in the 1st quarter of 2018.
Develop an implementation guideline for the partners regarding selection of beneficiaries and implementation of activities
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2018/02 Completed Implementation guideline was developed as attached. History
2. Recommendation:

The agriculture support given to each beneficiary varies from 6,000 to 9,000 BDT. The total amount received by the beneficiaries did not agree with the budgeted total support for the year 2017. The shortfall has been explained as expenditures for the payment of VAT, audit costs, etc. The VAT should have been borne by the suppliers. These costs should not have been deducted from the supports given to the beneficiaries. Hence it is recommended to resolve this issue of VAT, audit costs once for all.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24]

This is not under control of UNDP because VAT and Tax are applicable for any public procurement as per the government policy. In addition, as there is no contractual relationship between UNDP and suppliers, it would be difficult to change the situation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Discuss proper procurement system with local government partners
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2018/06 Completed PMU discussed procurement system with implementing partners in the 2nd quarter of 2018. History
3. Recommendation:

Decrease in number of 3-F model to 50 hectares, decreasing the depth will save some budget allocations. In worse scenarios, if even 50ha suitable land for the 3-F models are not available in landless people’s sites then it should be done only in the land areas available. Similarly, reduction of number of Killa and the three headings of NGO (Internal program monitoring, documentation and video filming & report preparation), will generate a good amount of money. It is recommended that these could be used for supporting monitoring activities, impact studies, establishing endowment for CMCs and FRPGs and also increase livelihood activities.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

Partially disagreed. Based on learning from the previous phase project, PMU concluded that decreasing the depth of project interventions is not technically feasible to achieve 3-F model. Instead, due to scarcity of suitable lands in the forest land, PMU plans to implement 3-F model at the homestead level, which requires less budget, saving allocation of budget. The saved budget will be spent on developing an adpation framework.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Implement 3-F model at the homestead level
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2020/05 Not Initiated
4. Recommendation:

Mission found that duck mortality was high in the first year, because of probable infection and exhaustion from long distance transportation. In the second year in some areas, when locally purchased and vaccinated ducklings were distributed, mortality rate was very low. Hence, it is recommended to purchase locally pre-vaccinated ducklings of at least 2 months old, for distribution to beneficiaries. It is also recommended to explore other species that are feasible for the local saline environment to diversify livelihood options.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24]

Agreed. PMU has already taken a management decision to purchase 4-5 months age-old ducks from the local areas. PMU has also initiated discussion with PDs livestock to ensure proper vaccination before ducklings’ distribution. After distribution of the ducklings, there will be a monitoring of vaccination process at a regular interval. Field-level staff would also monitor the vaccination process at the source to reduce mortality. Following the recommendation, the mortality rate of ducklings is reduced to a significant amount in the 2nd year. PMU has also proposed some other alternative livelihood options instead of duck rearing, including Turkey hens, Naked neck hen rearing, Hydroponics grass cultivation, Napier grass cultivation, Silage demonstration, and Quail rearing. PMU has also decided to formulate a procurement committee by Upazila-based CMCs making the livestock department staff as Member Secretary.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Ensure alternative livestock activity besides duck rearing
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2020/05 Initiated
Proposal for forming local procurement committee by Co-management Committee
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2020/05 Initiated
5. Recommendation:

This project largely involves community and members of the communities. Thus, at the very beginning of the project, a good socio-economic survey to generate a good baseline information of the beneficiaries is essential, to support project formulation, its implementation process and for the analyses of impacts of interventions. The project generated some baseline information but these are inadequate. The NGO engaged in early 2019, has been given the responsibly to generate the baseline information. The NGO engaged is likely to collect information of beneficiaries of livelihood programs of mostly of the FRPG (Forest Resource Protection Group) members, identified as such. The NOG may not collect the socio-economic information of beneficiaries under 3-F model, agriculture, fisheries and livestock. Under such situation, the NGO may be entrusted with the responsibilities to collect baseline information of all the beneficiaries of all sectors such as forest, agriculture, fisheries and livestock. This will be essential to examine the impact of interventions.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

Beneficiaries are selected at the beginning of every year during the project period, which follows baseline/monitoring data collection. In 2017, the 1st year of project implementation, it was delayed because of lack of project staff and nature of project implementation modality of the government partners. However, baseline/monitoring data were eventually collected in 2017 and 2018. In 2019, monitoring data collection is being carried out by the project’s field-based staff. To have comprehensive monitoring data to measure project impacts, the PMU has met with all staff and assigned the responsibility among field-based staff to complete monitoring data collection exercise.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Organize staff meeting for monitoring data collection in 2019
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/03 Completed Staff meeting minute is attached.
Complete monitoring data collection of 2019
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/09 Initiated
6. Recommendation:

Identification of the members of the FRPG (Forest Resource Protection Group) and formation of these groups have been entrusted with the NGO engaged on December 15, 2018. The project envisaged that 40 FRPGs will be formed for 8 Upazilla. The main duties and responsibilities of these FRPGs are to protect the coastal plantations. The project stated that these FRPG members will share the benefits from the coastal afforestation in lieu of their protection affords. Since harvest of tangible benefits, except NTFP, from the coastal forest is prohibited by law, sharing of (tangible) benefits will be too low to cater the required.

Under such situation, some sort of “Micro Capital Grant” or “Endowment Fund” has to be created. The interest of this fund may be used to pay off the remunerations of the FRPG members, to ensure the sustainability of this FRPG concept. Instead of forming 40 FRPGs, their number may be reduced with 30 members in each (may be to 14 FRPG or so) depending on the extent of forest areas under the project in 8 Upazillas. Similarly, there is no source to meet the operational costs of CMCs. Portion of the interest of this (endowment) fund may also be used for this purpose as well.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

Partially agreed. The primary objective of FRPG is to protect coastal greenbelt. To this end, forest-dependent beneficiaries are required to form 40 FRPGs. But there are limited number of forest dependent beneficiaries nearby the coastal forest to from 40 FRPGs. Moreover, to get registration from Cooperative Division of the government for FRPG, a group needs to be consisted with 30 members. As recommended by MTR, PMU has started consultation with NGO to form 14 FRPGs in 7 Upazila despite of its four working Upazila locations.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Present revised agenda in PIC/PSC meeting for forming 14 FRPGs in 7 Upazila with 30 members in each FRPG
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/08 Initiated
7. Recommendation:

The project has the target to construct 10 Killas on government Khash land, near the cyclone shelters for the safety of the cattle of the people, coming to the cyclone shelters. It appears that suitable sites, that are Khash land and near to cyclone shelter, are not available. Under such situation, it is recommended that Killa construction target may be reduced and the balance money be diverted to livelihood activity. Since Killa will be of use only as cattle shelter during cyclones and storm surges; it is recommended that, multiple-use structures may be built, which will shelter cattle at ground floor, people on upper floors, during cyclone and tidal surges, while during normal situation may be used as school or moktob (religious school for minor boys and girls), etc.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

Agreed to reduce number of killa to be constructed. The remaining budget will be utilized for developing an adaptation framework. It will be a bit challenging to construct multi-purpose cyclone shelters in remote coastal areas, due to coast-liner operations, funding availability, and time constraints. It requires significant amount of budget and much time to construct such shelters. As the government is also constructing multi-purpose cyclone shelters in many locations, it would not be wise to implement the similar plan at this moment given the limited budget for constructing multi-purpose cyclone shelter and time constraints towards project completion.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Present MTR recommendation in PSC meeting
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/08 Initiated
8. Recommendation:

Mission observed two types of sluice gates i.e. manually operated and flap type, which are operated by the tide current. This project aims to repair and bring back some of the non-operational sluice gates to operation, to benefit the beneficiary farmers to protect their agricultural fields from saline water intrusion and irrigation. The manually operated sluice gates may be repaired and brought to operation while the flap types need upgrading to manually operated ones. The interest of this project is to support the agriculture, by storing fresh water for irrigation and prohibit the saline water to enter the canal. On the other hand, the interest of the fishermen’s group is to have the water running regularly in the canal. Thus, the interest of these two groups are conflicting. The MTR mission came to know that in Monpura, Union has been leasing canal including sluice gate area to fisherman for the personal gain (shared by several local influential). It is also known that there used to be a sluice gate and canal management committee in the past. In the interest of the project and for the benefit of the farmers, it is recommended to reform or revive these sluice gate management committees for the operation of the sluice gates and these should be legalized through Water Development Board, since these sluice gates are under the jurisdiction of the Water Development Board.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

It is difficult to revive sluice gate management committee because the committee was established by the Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) a long time ago. In fact, BWDB follows its own mandate on small-scale water resource management in rural coastal areas. However, PMU will propose the BWDB to form the new management committee under this project. PMU has already initiated discussion with the relevant stakeholders for developing an operational guideline of the sluice gate management committee.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop an operational guideline of the sluice gate management committee in consultation with BWDB and other relevant stakeholders
[Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]
PMU 2019/12 Initiated History
9. Recommendation:

Project covers wide range of area with poor accessibility. It needs to strengthen the monitoring and feedback mechanism. Under this situation, it is recommended to conduct frequent monitoring. But the present budget for this is insufficient. To accomplish these, the budget for this item should be enhanced. More of the manpower and logistics, such as motor cycles, etc. be enhanced at field level, to ensure frequent monitoring.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/24]

Agreed. To strengthen the monitoring mechanism at the field level for effective implementation, it requires to increase some budget in this line item.  Besides the local field team, PMU Dhaka, UNDP CO, and MoEFCC plan more frequent field visits to monitor tangible results and impacts.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Increase budget for monitoring field activities in revised TPP
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/12 Initiated
10. Recommendation:

Since the project implementation was delayed in the beginning and due to that several works are yet to be implemented. Some of these are very time consuming and the remaining time may not be sufficient to complete the work. Hence it is recommended to make one year no cost extension of the project period.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24]

Agreed. Due to delay of project implementation, some of the activities yet to be started or just have started. Extension of project period is needed to achieve satisfactory results. For instance, PMU has just recruited partner NGO to form FRPGs which has vital role in forest protection, but it is yet to be decided the number of FRPGs and then to determine for their livelihood options. Besides, construction Killa, an important activity is being delayed due to scarcity of suitable land and seasonal barriers as well. More importantly based on the lessons and stake holder consultation, PMU has identified some innovative climate resilient livelihood activities which require some more time to implement and achieve the result.  Due to delay in project implementation, the beneficiary’s targets are also not a satisfactory level. Considering all, the project requires at least one-year extension to complete remaining activities and bring tangible results.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Consult with PSC on extension of project implementation period
[Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]
PMU 2019/08 Initiated History
Propose extension of project implementation period through revised TPP
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2019/12 Initiated
11. Recommendation:

Many of the project activities such as 3F model, community center, killa, etc. are closely connected to land. Under the prevailing complex land tenure situations, it is recommended that while implementing these activities, all concerned need to be thorough and conversant about the prevailing land laws. While implementing the activity of establishing community center, it is recommended that the construction of the building should be good enough to endure cyclones and tidal surges.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24]

Agreed. Proper locations will be selected for construction of community resource centers and killas, considering climate vulnerability in the coastal regions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Select proper construction sites of community resource centers and killas considering climate vulnerability
[Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]
PMU 2020/06 Initiated History
12. Recommendation:

Under the livelihood component, it is recommended to explore the possibility of private public partnership (PPP) and attempts be taken to attract private companies in developing market linkage for the beneficiaries of the project.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

Difficult to accommodate this recommendation at this moment. Due to time constraints towards completion of project and remoteness of project intervention areas, it would not be realistic to pursue PPPs during the project implementation period. The PMU and MoEFCC should start to explore potential partnerships with private sectors.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Share lessons learned from recent exposure visit in Indonesia about PPPs with Forest Department/MoEFCC or in the next PSC meeting
[Added: 2019/07/25]
PMU 2019/09 Not Initiated
13. Recommendation:

Some of the recommendation above under outcomes will also contribute to make intervention sustainable e.g. creation of endowment fund will support continuation of FRPGs and CMC activities beyond project life, formation of users committee for management of sluice gate and canal.

For present and also future benefit, it is recommended to establish Climate Adaptation Hub or Climate Adaptation Learning Centre’ so that all the relevant knowledge products, proven technology, innovation, Cyclone Preparedness Programs etc. related to coastal climate adaptation will be demonstrated in that center and could be used by the coastal communities, students as well as other stakeholders utilize knowledge for generating adaptation to cyclone and storm surges and also to reduce their climate vulnerabilities.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/07/24] [Last Updated: 2019/07/25]

It would not be realistic to establish a local climate adaption hub by the end of this project. Instead, at the request of MoEFCC, PMU and UNDP CO plans to develop a framework for establishing of the Global Center on Adaptation. In fact, there was a big event on Global Commission on Adaptation in Dhaka on July 2019. The Prime Minister committed in the meeting to establish a Centre on Adaptation. As per request from MoEFCC, UNDP CO has already drafted a ToR for supporting the MoEFCC to do some preliminary work on setup of the adaptation center.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Deploy consultants to support MoEFCC for conducting feasibility study and reconnaissance for establishing an adaption center
[Added: 2019/07/24]
PMU 2020/06 Initiated

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