Final evaluation for Mine Action Phase II project

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Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Egypt
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
09/2018
Completion Date:
12/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

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Title Final evaluation for Mine Action Phase II project
Atlas Project Number: 00085482
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Egypt
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2018
Planned End Date: 09/2018
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 3.3.1 Evidence-based assessment and planning tools and mechanisms applied to enable implementation of gender-sensitive and risk-informed prevention and preparedness to limit the impact of natural hazards and pandemics and promote peaceful, just and inclusive societies
SDG Goal
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
SDG Target
  • 1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
  • 1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: MOIIC and EU
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 30,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: MOIIC and EU
Countries: EGYPT
Lessons
Findings
1.

2.1 Design

The project was based on the hypotheses that, notwithstanding the humanitarian imperative, the rationale behind support to Mine Action in Egypt lies in the challenge it poses to the development of affected communities. The very fear of mines and ERW is an impediment to population growth in wide areas and restricts the free movement of persons and goods. Their presence also deprives people of basic services; restricts the use of natural resources; and severely undermine the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. As a result of the intervention the project aimed to develop and modernize national structures to minimize the impediments to development and the security risk posed by landmines and ERW.


Tag: Mine Action Capacity Building

2.

2.1      Intervention Logic

The Project Document assumed that Landmines and ERW are believed to have a significant negative impact on Egypt, particular as a restriction on socio-economic development, especially in the North West Coast. Egyptian civilians were said to use mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) contaminated areas for cultivation, grazing, housing and infrastructure projects.

An analysis of the project document and interviews with stakeholders demonstrate that the project’s planned outcomes and outputs were consistent with Egypt’s national strategies to develop the Northwest Coast and to reduce the negative impact of Landmines and ERW.


Tag: Mine Action Resilience building

3.

For output 3: “Strengthening national capacities of relevant stakeholders to manage Mine Action”. The direct beneficiaries of this were mainly those officials and staff involved in the demining activities. . A number of training courses were provided to a number of project staff who are involved in other relevant activities.

But, as effective demining was one of the key activities to achieve this output, information would be necessary, how many people directly benefits from the clearance activities and where this removal of ERW takes place.

The project document did not contain a logical framework. The Results and Resources framework was appropriate, in the sense that the flow from program objectives to outputs and activities were rational and in line with the intervention logic. The proposed risk mitigation approaches were appropriate and realistic, and reflected UNDP’s in-depth knowledge and understanding of the work in Egypt and of the Egyptian partner organizations.


Tag: Mine Action Results-Based Management Country Government

4.

2.1      Relevance

The relevance of the project was assessed through a review of the extent to which the objectives of a project are consistent with the needs of the Egyptian Government and how the intervention was designed and implemented to align and contribute addressing the ERW problem in line with the country’s plan of action.

The project was relevant in that it addressed clearly expressed needs, consistent with priorities set at national level with the National Development Plan of the North West Coast. It supported the national efforts of Egypt to develop living conditions and infrastructure to enhance the North West Coast’s economic potential.

The project has shown its relevance in terms of investment and development issues. Humanitarian demining seems not to be a relevant problem in those parts of the North West Coast in which demining has taken place.


Tag: Relevance Reconstruction

5.

Relevance to the Health Situation

The project did definitely contribute favorably to the mine survivors’ health situation in the Matrouh Governorate. The fully functional Artificial Limb Center has already fitted 74 mine survivors with new limbs and helped another 97 with maintenance of the existing prosthesis. It has drastically  improved the access to a prosthetic service of the mine survivors, who before had to travel to Alexandria or Cairo to be treated.

It is to be regretted that mine accident survivors with injuries others than lower limb amputations had to be referred to other centers. This referral system needs to be formalized as it is at present rather ad hoc.

The project was highly relevant in relation to directly assisting the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), No. 4: Reducing child mortality rates. By adopted safe behavior through its child-based MRE training and child oriented MRE campaigns, by the removal of ERW before they can be detonated by curious children; and via improving access to first aid and medical care for survivors of mine accidents.

The Artificial Limb Center is accomplishing a very important role for mine victims from past accidents, but the number of injured people attended is meanwhile relatively small.


Tag: Relevance Health Sector MDGs Capacity Building Disabilities

6.

Relevance to the Economic Development

The project’s demining activities were relevant in particular to the urban and the country’s development of the New City Alamein. The project strongly supported the national plan to create infrastructural and economic conditions in new cities in desert areas to attract people from the Nile-valley and the Delta to enable their permanent residence in the North West Coast.

The project has been a timely intervention from the perspective of the Government of Egypt given its high relevance to the economic development of the Alamein and Hammam area in the North West Coast.

 


Tag: Relevance Economic Recovery Urbanization

7.

Coherence with EU Strategy to Egypt

The project was also relevant in strengthening the international cooperation between Egypt, the United Nations and the European Union. The project emphasized that the EU is a reliable cooperation partner and also accepts its responsibility for the historical legacy of mines and UXO laid in the WWII by providing assistance to remove the hazard. The joint EU and UN high profile commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the battle of Alamein together with the President of the Republic of Egyptian government on the 21st of October 2017 highlighted this commitment. There were also representatives from of the UK, Spain, New Zealand, Estonia, Greece, Cyprus, Croatia, and Estonia at this ceremony.

The project was also compatible with the EU Neighborhood Policy (ENP) on economic development for stabilization, the EU country strategy in Egypt, the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for Egypt and with other EU policies and Member State Actions e.g. the Action Plan for International Cooperation of the Federal Republic of Germany. Commitment of Member States is clearly shown in their willingness to help Egypt with the remnants of WWII so that those living in rural areas improve their living standards.

http://mineaction.eg/news-events/ (October 2017)


Tag: Coherence Donor UN Agencies

8.

Relevance at Project Output Levels

Each of the project’s three outputs was pertinent to the needs of identified stakeholders in terms of Mine Action capacity building and fulfillment of its commitments. This finding emerges from the above overview of the project design and from interviews with stakeholders and beneficiaries, who unanimously viewed the project as responding to key needs and improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the overall Mine Action program in Egypt.

Capacity for Mine Clearance Operations

Strengthening the national capacity for Mine Action was essential for the need to have safe land for urban and infrastructural investment in the Alamein district; however output 1 was of less direct relevance to the aim of the project, due to the formulation of the output:

Referring to the project document, strengthening of the demining sector should also result in clearance activities to create secure conditions for agriculture or other land use for the directly affected Bedouin population. They make their living mainly by herding sheep in desert areas some of which are contaminated by mines and UXO. As the records of the past show, most of the accidents have happened in the rural areas of Barrani, Salloum and El Negila. (see Figure 1 for the districts and Figure 2 for accident statistic). In these western districts no mine clearance was done, neither for humanitarian purposes or to prepare safe agricultural land. In Dabaa, although the accident rate was fairly high, the clearance of the area for the future Nuclear Power Plant was focused on the potential production of electric energy and had little relevance to the livelihoods of rural population.

 


Tag: Agriculture Mine Action Relevance MDGs

9.

.

Reintegration of Mine Victims

The project had relevance to mine survivors in both it met the needs of their health and economic situation. Mine victims receive a small pension from the Egyptian Government in the range of 30% to 60% of the official minimum salary; most lived mainly from support by other family members. Improving their financial independence through income generating activities was highly appropriate.

The project was also relevant to MDG No. 3: Promoting gender equality and empowering women. This was achieved by making sure that female beneficiaries are heard during community Mine Action data gathering. In the income generating planning process for mine survivors the project also had a strong gender oriented approach.


Tag: Mine Action Relevance Gender Equality Cash Transfers

10.

Development and Expansion of Mine Risk Education

The project was highly appropriate in that it raised the public awareness about the risk of mines or UXO related accidents. There had been in the past years repeated harmful ERW explosions triggered by intentional moving of or tampering with the explosive devices. This clearly demonstrated the need for a MRE and awareness campaign to ensure that there was the appropriate knowledge of the risk of ERW posed and safe behavior in an affected environment.


Tag: Mine Action Relevance Communication

11.

2.1      Effectiveness

Generally the project appeared to be effective in that most of the planned activities were implemented, results achieved and outcomes largely met. It certainly also helped enhance institutional capacities, through training and Training of Trainers (ToT). The Civil Society Organization side of the project also appeared to perform effectively. In terms of project management/institutional arrangements, the project did well with UNDP as the project holder and, on occasion, as the booster of the project:

The cooperation of the EUDEL with the UNDP Country office provided valuable input into the project. Effective, mutual support helped to overcome critical situations during the project’s duration.


Tag: Effectiveness Project and Programme management Civil Societies and NGOs Capacity Building

12.

Effectiveness at Project Output Levels

Capacity for Mine Clearance Operations

Notwithstanding the question of who does the planning and who decides on priorities, the project was decidedly effective in achieving output 1. By using demining equipment purchased with funds from the project the Corps of Military Engineers of the Egyptian army were able to remove mines and other ERW from more than 1.674sqkm: 1) 152sqkm of terrain of the New City of Alamein, 2) 46sqkm of the area reserved for the envisaged Nuclear Power Plant in Dabaa, 3) 164sqkm of agricultural land in the area near to the New City of Alamein, and 4) 1.312sqkm of terrain to enable petroleum explorations near Barrani.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Mine Action Effectiveness

13.

Reintegration of Mine Victims

Physical rehabilitation: The establishment of a center for artificial limbs was a highly effective measure to restore maximum physical functional ability to mine survivors with lower limb amputations. The center has recently started fitting above knee prosthesis, but is still in the experimental phase.

The empowering of local NGOs to assist the mine survivors to have better access to the center was also very effective.

  • The target for this output: Establishment of fully staffed and equipped medical facility catering to victims of mine accidents was completely achieved.

Economic rehabilitation: The project was effective to the economic situation of only some of mine survivors. Interviews with project team members and NGOs made it clear that the output of economic reintegration of mine survivors was formulated in an over-ambitious manner with the target of having all mine victims engaged in income generating activities. This made the effective delivery difficult in the context of the project. The stated Indicator of: “Number of men and women beneficiaries receiving loans”; was also not suitable as the granting of loans were no longer seen by the EU as an appropriate measure and replaced with providing the beneficiaries with livestock.

Income generating activities started late, 215 of 740 of mine survivors were provided with livestock and this has proved effective. But many of the target beneficiaries (525) are still without support.

  • The target for this output 2: All mine victims, in the database, engaged in income generating activities, was only achieved to 29%.

Tag: Effectiveness Donor Reconstruction Economic Recovery Civil Societies and NGOs

14.

Development and Expansion of Mine Risk Education

Needs assessment and baseline evaluation increased the effectiveness of the MRE activities.

The design of target group oriented education methods, the high quality of the MRE material for children and the focusing on women as trainers assured real access to high risk groups like children in general and young boys especially.

The approach to women empowerment and the involvement of religious leaders for awareness-building was innovative within the Egyptian context and proved very successful.


Tag: Mine Action Effectiveness Women's Empowerment Communication Capacity Building

15.

Efficiency

The project represented good value for money, and obviously benefited from UNDP's institutional expertise, its access to outside experts/trainers, and its experience of other similar projects. In terms of project management/institutional arrangements for planning and supporting the delivery of activities, the project performed well. The distribution of costs was in line with the project objectives and its logical framework but the budget lines were not well balanced between the first component: Strengthening the capacities for mine clearance and the components of Reintegration for mine survivors and Development and expansion of MRE.


Tag: Efficiency Change Management Project and Programme management Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government Capacity Building Technical Support

16.

Efficiency at Project Output Levels

Capacity for Mine Clearance Operations

The reported removal of Landmines and UXO from 1.674sqkm of land by the Army Corps of Engineers was highly cost efficient. The EU contributed to the purchase of demining equipment and the development of capacity with €3.460.000. The Egyptian bodies who requested demining  (MinHous, MinAgr, MinEl and the Petrol sector) covered the running costs of the operations. The MinDef funded the salary costs of that of approx. 300 deminers for the 42 months of the project period. The Egyptian army also contributed with existing equipment.


Tag: Mine Action Efficiency Project and Programme management Quality Assurance

17.

Reintegration of Mine Victims

Physical rehabilitation: The establishment of the Artificial Limb Center was done in an economically resourceful manner. The involvement of local personnel and the inexpensive support by experienced prosthetic technicians from the military El Agouza Rehabilitation Center in Cairo has proved to be very efficient. The center is a spacious construction, appropriately equipped and with well-trained technical staff. The quality of the produced and fitted artificial limbs is high; the center is using on occasion superior Otto-Bock-components imported from Germany, which might not be in the future the most cost-effective approach. All mine survivors interviewed were very satisfied with their new limbs. Some of the older victims already had prosthesis from the El Agouza center and reported that the quality of those provided by the Matrouh Center is absolutely comparable.


Tag: Efficiency Health Sector Reconstruction Disabilities

18.

Economic rehabilitation: The leading idea of an Agro-Industrial center which should employ mine survivors was not regarded feasible within the project’s duration; the handover of livestock to mine survivors or their relatives was then implemented as a substitute income generating measure. The implementation of these activities was delayed because of logistical difficulties, until the end of the 6 months extension period of the project. The available funds were not sufficient to help all mine survivors so exclusion criteria was adopted to better serve those most in need which made the use of funds for the economic rehabilitation less effective.

The quality of the income generating strategy produced positive results. Many of the interviewed mine survivors reported 6 months after the start of the measure an increase in household income.

 


Tag: Reconstruction Efficiency Economic Recovery

19.

Strengthening of local NGOs: The involvement of local NGOs was fruitful; NGOs were also instrumental in collecting and recording high quality reliable mine survivor data.


Tag: Efficiency Civil Societies and NGOs

20.

Development and Expansion of Mine Risk Education

Expansion of MRE: 22 Training of Trainer sessions with 768 (562m, 206f) participants have been held and more than 92.000 persons have been reached by MRE campaigns. The involvement of religious entities and mosques in the MRE was an innovative and very efficient measure in influencing and teaching the male population which cannot easily be reached through formal educational channels.


Tag: Efficiency Communication Capacity Building

21.

Development of MRE: Local NGOs have done sterling work in mine awareness and advocacy activities. Most of their work is done by volunteers. This is surely a cost-efficient but not necessarily the most effective way of tackling these activities as the management of voluntary work can be problematic.

The quality of the MRE training was high, so was the MRE material used in the educational sessions for the trainers and for the final beneficiaries. Especially the MRE methods and the material for children was very well developed and adapted to children’s perceptions and experience.


Tag: Efficiency Communication Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs

22.

2.1      Impact

It is too early to assess the final impact of this project given the recent cessation of project activities. Impacts are beyond the immediate outputs and relate to wider long term outcomes. They depend greatly on how the National Government and the involved Ministries make use of the cleared land, the installed medical facility and how the affected population’s security situation and everyday living conditions improve.

Capacity for Mine Clearance Operations

The evaluation found positive outcomes in terms of use of cleared land for the important urbanization project of New City Alamein. The evaluator also met farmers who recently migrated from the Nile-delta to formerly ERW suspected areas in the Alamein desert and immediately started agricultural activities after the clearance finished. The Government additionally finished the El Hammam channel, making now the irrigation of the cleared land possible.


Tag: Agriculture Impact Urbanization

23.

Reintegration of Mine Victims

The project has achieved the wider outcome that target communities have better access to basic services and a slightly higher income.

The evaluation found enhancement of CSO Mine Action capacity and a stronger commitment by the local authorities to better the living conditions of mine survivors and to find solution to ERW problems. The evaluation also found much improvement in terms of staff skills and competences. This could mainly be observed in the Victim Assistance and MRE component.


Tag: Livestock Mine Action Impact Economic Recovery Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs

24.

Development and Expansion of Mine Risk Education

The project has achieved the wider outcome of an increased public awareness and safer behavior in high risk groups. The impact is also visible: The number of mine or UXO accidents is going down, which is undoubtedly a result of the project’s MRE activities. There was no ERW clearance done in the high risk area, which would explain the reduction of accidents. The impact of having fewer victims can be observed over time after the phase I of the project started in 2007. The yearly variation of the current accident rate has no statistical significance. It is important is that the figures remained low and are declining steadily. This is an excellent result of the project.


Tag: Disaster Risk assessments Disaster Risk Reduction Impact

25.

Sustainability

The evaluation assessed whether the outputs of the project are likely to continue after its termination, institutionally, financially and in relation to partnerships and cooperation.

As in the case of impact, there are elements of sustainability that can be identified. They include the adoption of policies and practice consistent with international Mine Action guidelines, the acquisition of new skills by government and military officials, and the reinforcement of the key civil society platform on Mine Action.


Tag: Mine Action Sustainability Sustainability

26.

Sustainability at Project Output Levels

Capacity for Mine Clearance Operations

The outcome of the project’s demining component is sustainable in the sense that, with help of the project, the Army Corps of Engineers is well organized, trained and well equipped. There is no doubt that this corps is more than able to continue with demining operations.

 


Tag: Mine Action Sustainability Country Government

27.

Reintegration of Mine Victims

The future of the Artificial Limbs Center is currently uncertain, at time of the evaluation the contracts of all staff were about to expire within a month time. The MinIIC stated it has secured funds for another 6 months. A study about different options for the future of the Artificial Limbs Center involving other Ministries or entities (Health, Social Solidarity, Governorate of Matrouh or the private sector) was done by an external consultant and was handed over to the MinIIC some months ago. A decision on what options would be the best to sustain the production of artificial limb is pending.


Tag: Sustainability Health Sector Human and Financial resources Civil Societies and NGOs

28.

Development and Expansion of Mine Risk Education

Like all projects that put a strong emphasis on training, the first and most essential element of sustainability of the MRE component is that acquired skills and expertise remain with those who participated in training, and as a result enhance the capacity of the institutions to which the participants belong. Representatives of beneficiary NGOs have also acknowledged to the evaluator the obvious benefits of training to their staff and institutions. There is the clear expectation of nearly all interviewed beneficiaries, local authorities and project officials that Mine Risk Education should continue. The project has achieved a common understanding that Mine Risk Education is the key to preventing future accidents. Existing strong collaboration with state school might lead in the future to the integration of MRE in the official school syllabus.


Tag: Sustainability Capacity Building

29.

2.1      Gender

The design took an approach to support mainstream gender considerations in the project by commissioning a rapid mini gender analysis and to get a firsthand impression of the effectiveness of the equity and mainstreaming measures implemented on the ground. The evaluation showed that the results of this analysis had an impact on the project design and implementation.


Tag: Gender Equality Women's Empowerment

Recommendations
1

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1:

Information should be collected at community level identifying its land clearance needs with the active participation of all groups; ensuring women have a voice and using rapid rural appraisal techniques

2

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2:

The Executive Secretariat should commission a Non-Technical Survey of the areas in question with involvement of civil society to identify suspected hazardous areas and its priorities for clearance.

3

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3:

The Executive Secretariat should present detailed demining proposals to the National Committee with clear targets in terms of size, benefitting population, expected outcomes and long term impact.

4

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:

The Executive Secretary should develop together with local authorities a long term plan for locally based and locally financed Mine Risk Education.

1. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1:

Information should be collected at community level identifying its land clearance needs with the active participation of all groups; ensuring women have a voice and using rapid rural appraisal techniques

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2020/12/01]

 

Management Response:  

Recommendation was conveyed to the Executive Secretariat and they will take it into consideration on designing a new project

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. description activities, then specifics as needed a. Set a System for land clearance needs
[Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/11/04]
Executive Secretariat 2019/12 Completed a. In collaboration with the Corps of Military Engineers and Matrouh governorate, a non-technical survey was conducted to identify areas for clearance for humanitarian purposes. b. Information collected at community level with an active participation of all community groups resulted in the identification of 6,000 hectares for clearance for humanitarian purposes. c. A detailed demining proposal was prepared and submitted to the National Committee for its approval. d. Protocol of cooperation was signed with the Corps of Military Engineers to conduct clearance operations in the identified area for the benefit of the local population. e. A detailed clearance plan was prepared by the Corps of Military Engineers and shared with the Executive Secretariat. f. Starting of clearance operations from the Corps of Military Engineers History
2. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2:

The Executive Secretariat should commission a Non-Technical Survey of the areas in question with involvement of civil society to identify suspected hazardous areas and its priorities for clearance.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2020/12/01]

Management Response: 

This has already been addressed by the Ministry of Defense

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Conduct non-technical survey
[Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/04/19]
Executive Secretariat 2020/10 Completed The technical survey has commenced in collaboration with the local community and the executive secretariat, and also the Ministry of Social Solidarity which will facilitate the involvement of concerned NGOs. CSOs will also utilize the their own experience on Mine Risk Education to the benefit of the survey. History
3. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3:

The Executive Secretariat should present detailed demining proposals to the National Committee with clear targets in terms of size, benefitting population, expected outcomes and long term impact.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2020/12/01]

Management Response:  

Recommendation was conveyed to the Executive Secretariat and they will take it into consideration

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
a. Executive Secretariat to prepare well defined demining proposals for National committee for approval.
[Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/11/04]
Executive Secretariat 2019/12 Completed a. The detailed proposal for humanitarian demining prepared by the Executive Secretariat and submitted to the National Committee presents all the information about the targets in terms of size and benefiting target groups, the expected outcome and long term impact. History
4. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:

The Executive Secretary should develop together with local authorities a long term plan for locally based and locally financed Mine Risk Education.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2020/12/01]

Management Response:   Recommendation was conveyed to the Executive Secretariat and they will take it into consideration

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
A mine risk education plan will be developed and integrated in the plan of the secretariat
[Added: 2018/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/04/19]
Executive secretariat 2020/11 Completed MOIC will commence a 5-year master plan for the Mine Action Strategy in Egypt on Mine-risk Education in collaboration with relevant stakeholders such as the Ministry of Social Solidairty, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Interior, State Information System, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Matrouh governorate and NGOs and local community. The master plan will focus on the Western Matrouh; Al Nigelah, Sidi Barani and Saloum provinces. The funding will be in-kind through Matrouh governorate. History

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