Terminal Evaluation: Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar (AF)

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Myanmar
Evaluation Type:
Planned End Date:
Completion Date:
Management Response:
Evaluation Budget(US $):


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Download document Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water and Food Security in Dry zone Myanmar TE report_Final.pdf report English 1980.38 KB Posted 1460
Title Terminal Evaluation: Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar (AF)
Atlas Project Number: 00079682
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Myanmar
Evaluation Type: Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 05/2019
Planned End Date: 03/2019
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.3.1 Data and risk-informed development policies, plans, systems and financing incorporate integrated and gender-responsive solutions to reduce disaster risks, enable climate change adaptation and mitigation, and prevent risk of conflict
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
Evaluation Budget(US $): 20,000
Source of Funding: Project Budgets
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 21,499
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Richard Sobey International Evaluation Consultant ( Team Leader)
May Nwe Soe National Evaluation Consultant ( Team Member)
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Dry Zone Greening Department , Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Environmental Conservation Department, Relief and Resettlement Department , Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department, Forest Department Department of Rural Development, Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department, Foreign Economic Relations Department Townships General Administration Departments and line agencies, Farm Business Development Aung Zay Yar Social Compassioners Association, Hydroconseil, Well Done Engineering, Network Activities Group, Community Development Action, Cesvi Foundation (Onlus), Community Development Association, Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System, Chalk & Slate, Myanmar Survey Research
Countries: MYANMAR

The formulation mission didn’t manage to clearly identify a project partner, for which there wasn’t a perfect fit or natural partner, due it its cross-sectoral nature. This continued through implementation. The project formulation process only managed to select location to township level, which meant that the project needed to spend three months undertaking a village consultation and selection exercise – which they did well. A trade-off, between involving all levels of government and those needed for implementation was also not clearly discussed in the prodoc, for instance Village Tract Level government could have been a closer ally.

Tag: Challenges Local Governance Partnership Programme/Project Design


The project was multi-sector, but the selected government counterpart (DZGD) was not organized to coordinate work across sectors12. Their capacity and interest was not a perfect fit with the project design. They were not even mentioned in the project design. Under the project agreements, they lacked any mandate for project management, administration or supervision, apart from facilitating the PSC as co-chair once the project was well underway in August 2016 (date of 2nd PSC meeting), i.e. two years already into the 4-year project. From the government side, they also lacked an ‘official’ mandate, having been delegated the project at this point, but without extra budget or formal instructions on expected support to the project.

Tag: Natural Resouce management Effectiveness Project and Programme management Country Government Coordination


Partnerships arrangements were established, but these were driven by UNDP under DIM, using UNDP procurement for goods and services. Thus, the project was largely run by UNDP procuring, contracting and monitoring inputs / outputs, with PSC endorsement. The partnership between the PIT and DZGD should have been stronger, not least in DZGD gaining project management experience for the future.

Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Partnership Procurement Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Country Government UNDP Management UNDP management


TAG meetings were held quarterly from 2016 onwards. They were set-up to provide technical assistance to the PIT and PSC, including: propose strategies for feasibility of activities; and review technical documents and studies. The membership as per the 12th or 13th meeting included: DZGD, DMH, FD, ECD, DoA, Irrigation & Water Utilization Management Department (IWUMD), Department of Disaster Management (DDM), Livestock Breeding & Veterinary Department (LBVD), DRD, and PIT and UNDP. UNOPS were an occasional presence due to their ‘LIFT’ project. Out of a nominated 15 representatives, 93 people attended the TAG meetings, which indicated a continuity issue on the government side. The TAG mainly acted as a pre-PSC meeting to iron out issues, provide solutions and assess activities for the coming quarter. After the first two TAG meetings in Mandalay, they were held in the townships on a rotational basis. It was noted that the project / TAG involved nine departments.

Tag: Operational Efficiency Project and Programme management Country Government Technical Support

  • DoA and Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) – The project on behalf of government, could not have achieved its capacity building objectives in agriculture without the close interest and involvement of these two departments. Strong partnerships were built between them and local stakeholder groups (Farmer Field School lead farmers, Seed post-harvest committee leaders).
  • DMH – The project worked in close cooperation with DMH with DMH being proactive and taking the lead on occasions during the implementation of Outcome 3.
  • Department of Disaster Management – They were instrumental in taking leadership in the creation of village and township-based disaster risk management committees. They established a new institutional mechanism for the delivery of early-warning information.
  • Yesin Agricultural University – They collaborated closely with both the DoA / DAR and the project in the field testing new drought-tolerant rice varieties. multiplication farmers,

Tag: Civic Engagement Harmonization Partnership Project and Programme management Country Government

  • The project placed an emphasis on the need for IPs to report gender-disaggregated data, which for training was diligently done.
  • The project relayed gender-related stories from the field for its external audience - UNDP media
  • The inception workshop had 67 participants, but only 9 were women (13%)
  • The project-level village selection workshop had a gender ratio of 146 men to 58 women (28%)
  • The livestock rapid needs assessment and beneficiary selection in 253 villages recorded 35% participation of women; 20% of livestock farmer committee members are women. The project has accorded priority to women-headed households in its livestock distribution activity
  • PSC attendance was 89 men to 12 women (13%); TAG was 136 men to 52 women (38%)
  • The risk assessment report (57pp, 2018) – The townships showed similar gender profiles with men 46% and women 54% of the population. This indicated that women’s representation / participation should have been proportionately higher, although the project rather needed this information in 2014

Tag: Gender Equality Gender Parity Monitoring and Evaluation Data and Statistics


UNDP Financial management - Under DIM, the PIT submitted invoices on behalf of the IPs, who were then paid directly. The project didn’t undergo any audits, except as part of general country audits in 2018 and 2019.

Tag: Efficiency Government Cost-sharing Anti-corruption Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation


A Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) Framework (March 2016, pp103) was prepared by an external consultant, but only 19 months from the project start. The M&E Officer was only engaged in August 2016 and left in December 2018 (2.5 years out of 5). The M&E Framework largely reiterates project documentation, especially reporting requirements and the results framework with its targets. What it doesn’t do is differentiate reporting tasks from standard M&E tasks in terms of result-tracking requirements. The framework does include the AF best practice and lessons learned templates 21 . It doesn’t include joint government responsibility for monitoring and supervision, as per earlier comments of UNDP during inception, and during 1st PSC meeting.

Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation Results-Based Management Data and Statistics


Regarding adaptive management and planning, targets were reduced for water infrastructure and tree planting (due to higher than estimated costs), with changes endorsed by the PSC and the AF Secretariat informed. Also regarding adaptive management, there were changes in the field with the inclusion of the Shwebo canal renovation. There was little or no impact in the changes in water infrastructure targets, except for the watershed-level soil and water (S&W) conservation measures which were reduced but then exceeded their orginal target. As mentioned these off-farm measures needed more investment per hectare, so maintaining the reduced target would have been better. For the forestry targets, vacant land planting was doubled and public land planting halved, but the issue was more of future responsibility and protection costs.

Tag: Natural Resouce management Water resources Effectiveness Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management Results-Based Management


The reporting system was extensive, although as mentioned it should not be seen as replacing the M&E requirements, which had it been better designed, could have reduced the volume of reporting. The reporting included:

Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Results-Based Management


UNDP and PIT communications were good, however the PIT, despite being housed within DZGD, didn’t really manage to mobilise sufficient or added institutional support from DZGD. For example, the DZGD as the officially designated government counterpart should have been co-hosting workshops, gaining a consensus and working towards common implementation approaches, such as on community forestry. There was little evidence of such leadership, or learning by DZDG beyond their functionality within the PSC / TAG system. The DZGD role was however limited by the prodoc design which afforded UNDP all implementation control, and despite requests early on in the project to have a greater supervisory role, this was also limited. What would have been useful would have been to have a couple of DZGD staff seconded to the PIT to build capacity.

Tag: Effectiveness Resource mobilization Local Governance Communication Country Government Capacity Building


Analysis of the overall result - Climate-change adaptations and enhanced resilience measures for rural farmers and the environment were successfully implemented in the form of: improved water supply, soil & water conservation at catchment and farm level, watershed re-greening to enhance water retention, drought and heat-resistant crop varieties, post-harvest technologies to improve food security and income, asset diversification for the landless with livestock provision, weather information for farmers and an early-warning system established.

Tag: Rural development Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Effectiveness


Climate change adaptation measures – Livelihood level (% of target households)

(Baseline – Farming based on traditional weather and not suited to more intense & frequent drought; Target – 75% of poor farming households (<0.8 ha tenured land, or the landless ~32,400 households) implement climate-resilient agriculture or livestock practices; Revised target 61% (~17,500 h/hs of which 11,500 agriculture & 6,300 livestock)

Result against the indicator - According to the endline survey26 , from the original target number of 50,543 households, at the start of the project 26,788 households (53%) had insufficient food, which the project reduced by 10,109 (20%) to 16,679 households (33%) remaining with insufficient food.

Analysis - The TE could not identify a direct or verifiable figure for this indicator, however the above proxy measure from the endline survey was available, which indicated over 10,000 households more now had sufficient food. The survey was independent and provided this robust figure.

Also, the project reported figure of 19,206 more households (38%) with food security (income) increased (~sufficient food) was not verifiable, nor was the project reported figure of 36,940 (73%) having benefitted from the project. However, the total numbers participating in climate-resilient training was impressive at 27,634, which included 10,026 women.

Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Effectiveness Food Security


Analysis - It would appear that there was quite some discrepancy between the prodoc design data and external baseline periods when respectively, water shortages were reported for 74% of the households (2011) and then sufficient for 82% of the households (2016). This was more than likely due to very different sampling and calculation methods. However, by end of project and taking the latest endline survey figures, sufficient water supply was reported by 91% of respondents in Shwebo and Myingyan27.

The indicator itself was somewhat convoluted in expecting the project to identify the households with water shortages and then improve supply to 80% of them. The project calculated a figure that this had been achieved for 49% of these households28, but the calculation could not be verified by the TE.

Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness


Water supply and storage infrastructure (280 villages) (Output 1.1 – Water infrastructure) The rating is Satisfactory

(Baseline - 0 / limited; Target – Groundwater infrastructure - 10 deep tube wells; 40 shallow tube wells; 70 water pumping systems; 56 communal water tanks (5000 gallons); Surface water infrastructure - 45 water catchment channels; 150 communal ponds; Land covered terraces & check dams – 1,156 ha)

Groundwater Infrastructure – Tube wells, water pumping systems & tanks

Result - The project constructed: 12 deep tube wells29; 20 shallow tube wells; 70 water pumping systems; and 56 village water tanks.

Analysis - These were very successful interventions with best practice designs (survey, design, implementation, supervision)30, and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) fees collected by water user committees

Tag: Water resources Effectiveness Technical Support


Surface water infrastructure – Check dams, catchment channels & village ponds with S&W conservation at the sub-watershed level

Result - Two hundred and five (205) check dams were constructed within sub-watersheds. Forty-four catchment channels - were constructed over a distance of ~26 km. These were directed towards 136 communal water retention ponds, for people / livestock, which were mainly renovated. This water catchment infrastructure was then handed over to village water committees. In addition, on-farm S&W conservation measures were implemented. The total area covered was 1,629 ha.

One canal with six sets of sluice gates (Kin Tat Canal, Shwebo City) was renovated to provide township water supply and irrigation31. The scheme increased irrigation (1,215 ha); reduced waterlogging (810 ha); increased farm cultivation (32 ha); and supported the revival of a palm toddy plantation, which had been closed for 10 years due to poor water supply. Management was handed over to the city irrigation department. This intervention was very successful.

Analysis - The intervention logic was to protect and enhance water sources in sub-watersheds close to villages through the construction or renovation of check dams, catchment channels and village ponds. The ‘dam to channel to pond’ systems were often not functioning effectively as the catchment channels were not connected their catchments. They lacked any flood and soil erosion control ‘herringbone’ spurs to collect water and reduce erosion from rain deluges. Also, the check dam designs were of limited lifespan and lacked (effective) silt traps. In the case of the ponds, after dredging, any clay siltation or lining would have been damaged, and so not effectively increase water retention. It was also clear that the O&M for this infrastructure was also lacking. For more comprehensive water conservation, holding tanks or cisterns could have been constructed as well.

In short, the intervention should have been replaced with more of a demonstration type activity where the logic of the catchment water to pond system was clear. Instead, and as well as the project implemented S&W conservation at the farm level.

Tag: Water resources Effectiveness Technical Support


Analysis - The bunding of on-farm sloping land needed to be vegetated with shrubs or small agroforestry trees that livestock won’t damage. It was not very common to find a number of measures in the same location / field, such as soil and contour bunds with agro-forestry planting (and also integrated with Output 2.3).32 There were no terraces constructed as the farmland was not suitable (i.e. within the standard slope parameters, with highly productive soils). The distribution of the S&W manual across departments also indicated that there isn’t a direct match for S&W conservation within government.

Tag: Agriculture Agriculture land resouces Forestry Rural development Effectiveness


Watershed protected through community re-afforestation (original target 4,200 ha) (Output 1.2 - Forestry) The rating is Moderately Satisfactory

(Baseline - 50 ha of natural forest conservation; Target - 2,160 ha of NFC; 1,360 ha of tree planting on public land; 680 ha of planting on community-managed land; Revised Target – 3,913 ha, 770 ha & 1,458 ha respectively)

Result against indicator - The project rehabilitated 5,468 ha of degraded watersheds to increase water retention and reduce erosion, of which: 3,050 ha of reforestation under natural forest conservation; 1,073 ha of public land planting; and 1,230 ha of community forest creation. The planting was mainly on two administrative classes of land – vacant (with some on forest estate) and public (communal) land. Added to this there was one management approach, namely community forestry (CF).

Analysis – The three activities were confusing, when considered from land tenure and management aspects33. Thus, in essence, whilst the focus was on the coverage which was exceeded, the management approach was missing, meaning that the sustainability is questionable34.

Tag: Natural Resouce management Sustainability Implementation Modality Project and Programme management


Concerning the forestry and tree planting, the impression given was one of raised environmental awareness with good community participation (- they were paid to plant), and a good link between the communities and FD, and lastly with good coordination between UNDP and the IPs with targets being achieved. However, there were some significant issues. Government permission to plant trees took too long, and permission to establish CF outside forest estate was not granted at all. Despite community involvement in planting, the type and scale of land preparation (large pits for the trees according to government standard35), required the project to hire contractors with back-hoe diggers. Tree seedling ‘beating-up’ and ‘gapping-up’ took extra resources, and the issue of grazing and fire control was not addressed. On the last point, the dry zone farmers extensively burn the land in March in order to promote new grass growth from the beginning of the rainy season. Whilst this is a traditional and useful practice, it needs better management, especially where erodible soils have undergone tree re-greening / re-stocking efforts.

Tag: Forestry Rural development Natural Resouce management Challenges Civic Engagement Project and Programme management


Analysis - FD tended to be present for field work when the land was forest estate, with DALMS only sometimes present when the land was vacant land. There was a lack of collaborative approach and agreed roles from the government side, especially the lower levels of DALMS which included the (unpaid) land committees at tract and village level. At a township and regional level, there was less interest from FD and DALMS didn’t want to be involved, as they had not been instructed via GAD to undertake any land survey for the purpose of CF, and especially not for any vacant land.

Tag: Forestry Challenges Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Harmonization Implementation Modality Ownership Project and Programme management Country Government


Analysis - A criticism, was that in some instances micro-watershed tree planting (and including for the agroforestry gap planting in the next section) was undertaken on (tenured or untenured) agricultural land, which would be contrary to the land law. The management of the trees outside compounds was not always clear. The tree survival on roadsides, outside compounds was estimated at 30% in Monywa. For both types, the project was late to set up village groups, however, letters sent to village leaders regarding protection, in some cases was resulting in village fines for damage by livestock.

Tag: Agriculture land resouces Forestry Challenges Civic Engagement Local Governance


Analysis - These interventions were quite scattered, and not very well integrated with either the on-farm S&W conservation measures or the agriculture-based agroforestry planting under Output 2. Thus, whilst the impact was difficult to quantify, it was unlikely to be significant. The soil erosion experiments were an unexpected, but welcome find, indicating not only the value of soil conservation measures, but also the level of commitment by the IP, NAG in creating them.

Tag: Agriculture Forestry Natural Resouce management Site Conservation / Preservation Water resources Integration


The agriculture interventions were very competently and successfully implemented. The details with analysis are provided under the outputs section.

Tag: Agriculture Effectiveness Implementation Modality Project and Programme management


Analysis - The AWD tool reduced the number of paddy-irrigation periods from 11 to 8 per crop. Yields remained the same – with or without the AWD tool, but importantly water use was reduced by ~40%.48 It only costs $3. Also, farmers were taught to transplant single seedlings not later than 20 days (for quicker recovery) which reduced seed requirements from 2 down to 1.5 baskets / acre. In terms of pest and diseases, root rot disease and iron toxicity (due to continuous flooding) were both significantly reduced.

Tag: Agriculture water resources Water resources Effectiveness Technical Support


Drought-resilient farming to enhance the resilience of subsistence agriculture (Output 2.1 - Agriculture)

Analysis - This was probably the most technical experiment conducted by the project. 20% of their final technical report by Cesvi is taken up with just this adaptation measure. The varieties included early-maturing, heat-tolerant, early-morning flowering genotypes and breeding accessions of rice. Early-maturing varieties not only reduce the risk of crop losses due to end-of-season drought but can also contribute to reduction of the hunger gap. Heat-tolerant varieties can resist extreme temperature during summer time and early-morning flowering varieties can escape from heat during flowering and fertilization. The positive contribution of this intervention was clear.

Tag: Agriculture Agriculture water resources Rural development Resilience building Water resources Effectiveness


Participatory Dryland farming demonstration plots

Analysis - The success of these interventions was clear. A part from the two rice demonstrations, it was the first example of a project demonstrating differing types of intercropping in the dry zone with farmers’ preference. The type of intercropping was two or more species planted in alternate rows. Farmers were introduced to the practice of sowing a fast-growing crop with a slow-growing crop, so that the first crop was harvested before the second matured, which did not require differing planting dates with all crops started at the same time.

Tag: Agriculture Agriculture water resources Crop production Rural development Civic Engagement Implementation Modality


Farmer Field Schools (FFS) & Exchange visits

Analysis - The creation and support to FFSs was the main ‘knowledge transfer mechanism’ for this agriculture section of the project and was highly effective. The objectives were to: provide an opportunity to evaluate differing cropping practices; how to organize FFS in their communities; and to sensitize members in new ways of thinking and problem solving. The intervention of establishing and supporting FFSs was successful, however DoA extension staff were not always available for project activities, thus the project trained some of the lead farmers to supervise the FFS activities.


Tag: Crop production Civic Engagement Knowledge management Capacity Building


Farmer Seed Multiplication (of drought-resistant crops)

Analysis against indicator - The farmer-based seed multiplication intervention was conducted in 175 villages (against a target of 140 locations) and was highly effective. The numbers of women involved was also towards being representative.

Tag: Crop production Effectiveness Gender Parity


Post-harvest processing & storage (Output 2.2)

Analysis - The impact of the reduction in post-harvest crop loss, as a result of the threshers, storage silos and the training was significant.

Tag: Agriculture Rural development Effectiveness Capacity Building


Analysis - The intervention to provide livestock under a revolving fund mechanism was successful. However, it was too early to assess all production costs (especially for pigs) against sales, but most participants were able to payback the funds. From the 3,700 original recipients, there were 108 demonstration livestock farmers56, which was not many considering that the intervention was present in 253 villages. The project also only created 40 on-farm fodder plot demonstrations (0.25 – 1 acre each) of Napier grass, which was far too few and as an afterthought. This should be considered a concern as poorer recipients are unlikely to buy fodder or foodstuff and free ranging of the goats would exacerbate dry zone degradation.

Tag: Agriculture Livestock Effectiveness Sustainability


Analysis – The project was very successful in developing a basic mobile weather application for farmers, although future work is needed to include agri-advisory information, on a technical and local geographic level.

Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management Effectiveness


% of Dry Zone farmers with access to Early-Warning Information (EWI) on sudden disasters The rating is Highly Satisfactory

Analysis - Thus, it would appear that access to EWI is in direct correlation to the households and villages that the project worked in, but also that there wasn’t any upscaling or replication of access to the EWI either via disaster committees or the application. The project reported that 78% of all households receive EWI, with the endline survey pointing out that most receive such information via TV and radio.

Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk assessments Disaster risk management Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience building Effectiveness


Early-warning System (EWS) – An institutional mechanism and a mobile application The rating is Highly Satisfactory

Result - The project created an institutional mechanism in the form of 75 community-based disaster risk committees which were linked to the DDM at township level. The project also developed an EWS disaster alert notification (DAN) application for mobile phones. This was embedded within DDM as their new mobile system, in tandem with the standard telephone call method.

Tag: Disaster Risk assessments Disaster risk management Disaster Risk Reduction Effectiveness Civic Engagement Innovation Civil Societies and NGOs


3.3.3    Training

One of the key project approaches, was to train alongside the implementation of activities. This was successfully and significantly undertaken for:


Tag: Agriculture Crop production Rural development Effectiveness Civic Engagement Capacity Building


Efficiency is rated as Satisfatory

Without the IPs hired to implement the activities, the project would not have been able deliver the expected results, thus in this respect, the project approach to sub-contracting was very efficient. Whilst a number of interventions were often found within a village or surrounding area, it was very rare for them to be together on the same piece of land – e.g. soil conservation bunding and agro-forestry species on the bunds or as boundary planting; or livestock with (any) fodder production. However, there were often a number of interventions with a village, thus moving towards multi-intervention climate-smart villages in the future would be a logical step.

Tag: Agriculture Rural development Efficiency Civic Engagement Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality


The project remained relevant. The project was based on NAPA (2012, pp127) priorities with dry zone farming adaptation at the forefront. Sectors in which level 1 priority adaptation projects to be implemented first included agriculture, early-warning and forestry. The project design and implementation remained highly relevant, especially with climate change issues becoming more acute. E.g. rainfall patterns include insufficient rains for rainfed rice at the expected planting dates, which necessitate identifying shorter growth-cycle varieties, and / or using external water sources (boreholes for irrigation), for which the dry zone is not suitable.

Tag: Agriculture Agriculture water resources Forestry Disaster risk management Relevance Programme/Project Design


The level of country ownership varied by department, with a TE comment here on their overall level of involvement in the project:

  • DZGD - high – as the government counterpart, & as a service provider for seedlings
  • FD – medium – should have been high due to the significant size of the forestry component
  • DoA – high – due to the extensive agriculture component and their interest to work closely with the project DMH – high – due to close involvement with project on provision of climate information
  • DDM – high – due to close involvement on provision of an institutional mechanism for early-warning LBVD – low – limited due to staff availability.
  • DRD – low – limited due to their role not being a clear fit with the project interventions
  • IWUMD – low – only involved in the Shwebo canal and irrigation scheme and its handover to them ECD – low – only involved in TAG meetings and reporting back to MoNREC

Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Human and Financial resources Ownership Project and Programme management Country Government


The overall rating for sustainability is that it is Moderately Likely

4.1.     Financial Risks to Sustainability

Since 2012, there has been a significant increase in government funding in climate change, environment, rural development, dry zone greening; agri-research, and weather forecasting. DMH has also had a significant investment in technologies by donors, including Korea and Japan. The level of funding from donor projects has also significantly increased since the beginning of the decade.

However, without proven sustainable re-greening methods, and without the government interest in community forestry, the willingness of donors to support forestry in the dry zone is unknown. The rural development approach here probably needs to start at the beginning with village development planning (VDP). For forestry as a key outcome, there is a significant risk that any success and lessons learned will not be built upon after project closure. There is a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project in Chauk which could be requested to support CF and carbon capture.

Tag: Climate change governance Sustainability Resource mobilization Civic Engagement Jobs and Livelihoods


Reduction in stress on ecological systems

It is too early to assess any reduction in stress on the ecosystem. For example, whilst water supply from aquifers has been increased, without monitoring usage (especially if livestock production heavily increases due to year-round water availability secured), a significant draw-down may occur over the next 20 years. Thus, the project solution was medium and not long-term.

Tag: Agriculture water resources Ecosystem based adaption Impact Monitoring and Evaluation


The project was not designed to support the revision of laws or policies, but it was in-line with objectives and demonstrated approaches in the field, particularly for agriculture, the dissemination of weather information and the creation of an early-warning institutional structure. The only deviation concerned CF, where the forestry laws and political willpower didn’t converge, however the project demonstrated an approach in the field. There is now a new law on forestry (2018), and CF instructions again being updated, but how they address CF has not been assessed, nor in terms of the new vacant land law.

Tag: Forestry Impact Country Government Policy Advisory


Scaling-up and Replication

The project was implemented in 280 villages out of 998 villages in five townships ~28% coverage, thus there is an opportunity to scale-up within the townships and across the dry zone.

Tag: Sustainability Sustainability


Water supply – The reservoir at Thaputsu Village (Nyaung U) needs to be reduced in size and clay-lined as a new project. Village protection of this natural conservation forest area also needs to be strengthened. (The UNDP project supported extensive enrichment planting of the watershed to increase water supply to the reservoir). [government / donor community]


Forestry – The next community forestry (CF) project needs to partner with the forest department (FD) at a much higher region or central level. The approach needs to be determined in the light of the new Forest Law (2018) and updating of CF instructions (2016), especially in respect of applications for CF on vacant land [government / donor community]


Water supply – For the deep tube wells, the water committees need to record aquifer water extraction over time, starting with the installation of water meters if not already done. [government – DRD / Water committees]


Watershed management – Catchment-level soil conservation measures – check dams and silt traps need to be constructed in conjunction with flood / erosion control spurs or side channels, which in turn need to be connected to main channels leading to water retention ponds. These catchments additionally need to be vegetated and protected from seasonal fire and livestock. [government / NGO community].


Forestry – Future projects with village development planning (VDP) and land use planning & land allocation (LUPLA) should include CF as demonstration activities [government / donor community]


Forestry – Tree planting on vacant land without appropriate management is not sustainable. A new strategy with an institutional mechanism and local partnership approach is needed, with the focus on rewards for maintaining tree cover for more than 10 years. [government – DZGD / donor community]


Agriculture – Crop breeding – farmer participatory seed selection with farmer multiplication and farmer field schools (FFS) need expansion and strengthening - the UNDP project was a significant step for increasing resilience, but for continuity and sustainability, future projects are needed [government – DoA, DAR, YAU / donor community]


Agriculture – The concept of climate-smart villages should be explored in future projects [government / NGO community]


Soil & Water Conservation – On-farm S&W conservation, physical measures such as bunding need to be prepared in conjunction with vegetating those bunds with agro-forestry or other species [government / NGO community]


Weather information for Farmers – Cumulative rainfall data from the dry zone automatic weather stations (AWSs) needs to be accessible to famers and agri-advisories developed. These advisories could also be presented on farmer radio shows together with key weather forecasts at days at 8, 18, and 28 days. The advisory needs a national delivery mechanism for the dry zone [DMH / donor community and / or RIMES]

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