Terminal Evaluation of Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods

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Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Ghana
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
11/2020
Completion Date:
03/2021
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

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Title Terminal Evaluation of Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods
Atlas Project Number: 00089037
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Ghana
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2021
Planned End Date: 11/2020
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
SDG Target
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: UNDP, Adaptation Fund
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 38,229
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Antonio Arenas R International Consultant
Philip Acquah National Consultant GHANA
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Increased Resilience to Climate Change in Northern Ghana through the Management of Water Resources and Diversification of Livelihoods
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: EA
GEF Phase: GEF-1
GEF Project ID:
PIMS Number: 4952
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Environment Science Technology and Innovation, MMDAs, UNDP, NGOs, CSOs, Water Resources Commission, Environmental Protection Agency, Local Government & Rural Development, Forestry Commission, Ghana National Fire Service
Countries: GHANA
Comments:

Final/ terminal Project evaluation 

Lessons
1.

Lessons Learned

The Terminal Evaluation highlighted the following lessons learned which when addressed will enable replicability or scaling up this project; and will improve future implementation process and sustainable management. These include:

Lesson 1. Women and youth are particularly vulnerable and at risks to adverse effects of climate change impacts because of their peculiar circumstances in the communities. Climate smart water supply systems (dams, dugouts, functional boreholes) can effectively support productive small holder farming and reduce migration to other population centers where integrated and sustained under the government’s policy of planting for food and jobs. The rice farmers in Upper East testified to this positive outcome of the AF project.

Lesson 2: CHACHE Shea nut small-scale processing plant (coordinated by Pure Trust) demonstrates that shea butter production has potential of growth from micro-scale enterprises (MSEs) to small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) and increasing income generation   at the community level, because of market access and supply demand for shea butter by private sector (local and oversea markets).Women received training from the NGOs, and have diversified into soap making as value addition to shea butter production chain. The project has the opportunity to be integrated in the government’s flagship IDIF job creation programme.

Lesson 3: Local by-laws and rules by traditional authorities are enforceable for Shea tree crop conservation and protection for expansion and profitable shea nut processing and butter production. Chache Shea butter processing plant has assured supply of shea nut as the main raw material. This is because the traditional chief of Cache has instituted a local conservation rules banning the cutting of shea trees as economic trees, and has instituted an enforcement regime throughout the community.  The compliance to the traditional rules is assessed as very successful; and providing the needed raw material for the Chache shea butter production. This conservation measure could be promoted in all the shea nut processing communities for sustainability of the climate smart livelihood intervention.

Lesson 4 Community entry agreements for release of parcels of land, for the livelihood project implementation were not honoured by some communities, including the Project Coordinator’s own village community. Land tenure constraints made replacement difficult and delayed siting of the livelihood project particularly agro-processing centers. There is the need of purchase of lands for implementation of such livelihood projects to avoid potential delays.  The relocations were far from utilities (electricity sources and/or water sources). The additional cost of the extending the electricity and water were not factored in the project cost estimate by the NGO partners. These installations are still without electricity and have not started operation at the time of the field evaluation. For such communities, the Municipal and District Assemblies would need to provide the utilities after the PMU/UNDP handing over of the projects to the MDAs. Increasing dissatisfaction of non-project beneficiaries, leading to tendencies of arson during the dry season period

Lesson 5: In communities with functional boreholes for potable water and rehabilitated dugouts/dams with active canals for irrigation, dry season farming is well supported and profitable.  Though communities increased their acreage for farming, and productivity increased, marketing of produce became a challenge due to lack of transportation to market centers. Communities wished local transportation (motor king) were included in the facilities provided by the project to the youth as part of the value chain.

Lesson 6: With exception of few instances of dry season farming NGOs in the communities, most of the project implementors of the intervention were located far from the community and did not have good communication channels for active interactions with beneficiaries. This highlights the question of effectiveness of contractors compared with services provided by to district-and regional level institutions such as CWSA, GIDA, MOFA Extension Services, Forestry Commission, Game and Wild Life.

Lesson 7: Complete burning of water hoses and surface pipe conduits and the farm was observed in one community. This was attributed to the dissatisfied non-beneficiaries who want the demonstration projects to be replicated on their lands adjacent to the project farms.  This brings the need of sensitizing communities that the project was an adaptation fund demonstration that could potentially be scaled up as a result of the project success and its linkages to the government’s flagship programme of Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJs).

Lesson 8: The development of the project (2011-2016) and implementation period (2016-2020) was subject to three political cycles (2012, 2016, and 2020). As a result, there were political interreference with respect to which government in power did initiate the project; and which implemented; and which takes the glory of the project results for electoral votes in a political economy. This led to some degree of interference by the Assemblymen in the completion of the projects in 2020 regardless of benefits to their communities. Political cycles need critical adaptative management measures to minimize impacts on community-based projects.

Lesson 9: Periodic flooding resulting from the spillage of excess water from the Bagre Dam in Burkina Faso continue to be a threat to climate change adaptation projects in the project districts particularly communities along the White Volta in the Bawku West District in the Upper East Region.  Between 5th August 2020 and Monday 10th August 2020, the rehabilitated dams project in communities including Lamboya, Tampion breached as a result of been hit by the flooding resulting from the spillage of the two dams in Burkina Faso (Bagre dam and Kompienga dams). Farms planted with crops like millet and sorghum got inundated. The threat of the floods does pose considerable challenge to the sustainability of the livelihood projects in those flood-prone districts.

Lesson 10: The success of the Chache community and others can be shared and promoted in other districts populations, at bank level and even at CSR level of private sector, to attract and mobilize support and their active participation in the production and processing value chain, which would increase the possibilities to increase profitability and move beyond the level of MSSE and MSE to SME. This specially applies regarding to Shea production and processing, agro-processing and fish farming.

https://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/bagre-dam-spillage-farms-underwater-in-bawku.html;

https://www.wanep.org/wanep/files/2020/Sep/GHANA_Quick_Update_on_Bagre_Dam_Spilage.pdf

http://www.nadmo.gov.gh/index.php/12-nadmo-articles/68-press-release-spillage-of-the-bagre-dam-and-nadmo-s-response-operation-thunderbolt-2020

 

 

 


Findings
1.

Main Findings

This section presents specifics observations based in the project documents provided by the PMU and the TE Field Mission Report. These observations mainly focused on project strategy design, implementation towards results achievement, following the evaluation question on Annex 6.5, relative to the Relevance, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Result, Sustainability, Gender equality and women’s empowerment and Cross-cutting and UNDP Mainstreaming Issues.

Project strategy design: The Project document is of an excellent quality. The design of the project includes a scientific approach, the needs and expectations of the GoG and beneficiary groups, and lessons and recommendations from different kinds of pre-existing practices. In addition, it explains in depth the problems addressed by the project and its components are designed in a “funnel-like structure”, which allows to create the bases of scientific climate information for decision-making in the short, medium and long term; necessary for a proper management of water resources and with this, provide opportunities to diversify the livelihoods of the directly beneficiary populations with a climatic resilience perspective, indirectly addressing issues related to food security, increase economic income, reduction of youth migrations and increase female empowerment.

Project relevance: The project’s relevance is rated to be Highly Satisfactory (HS). It improves national adaptation actions taken to address climate change. The project supports the achievement of three of the ten national priorities for climate change adaptation, as out-lined in the 2011 National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (NCCAS). This is also consistent with government priorities, such as the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II (GPRS II) of Ghana and the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA). In addition, the level of coherence between project and national policy priorities and strategies is high, including the attention to the National Water Policy of Ghana, the One Village One Dam policy and the project Water for all initiatives; according to the vision of the Government of Ghana through the Water Resources Commission (WRC). The project also responds to the need to improve water resources management practices (particularly wetland conservation) to address climate impacts, risks and vulnerabilities highlighted in the Ghana’s Second National Communication (NC2), Third National Communication (NC3) and Fourth National Communication (NC4) submitted to the United Framework Convention of Climate Change as well as the World Bank study on Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) in Ghana. The project currently is contributing significantly to the government’s flagship programmes designed to create employment particularly for the youth in rural and peri-urban communities, thereby improve income levels and standard of living, as well as reduce rural-urban migration. These three flagship programmes are one village one dam (IV1D), planting for food and jobs (PFJs) and one district one factory (ID1F). 

At regional level, the project has a high level of involvement of local and national stakeholders in project origination and development, considering the Savannah Development Authority’s Sustainable Development Initiative for the Northern Savannah (2010-2030) and taking into account the local structures and partners, the consolidation of institutional planning and water resources management and strengthen the organization and capacity of communities. The project also engaged 46 community organizations in the delivery of the key products. The community participations included key actors as traditional authority, traditional landowner, family / clan landowners Fulani herders, minority tribes, women, farmers along the proposed water resource, representatives of the project’s district assembly officials and relevant regional institutions.

There is a high level of coherence between project objective and AF strategic priorities. The results fully comply with the AF intervention, that supports multi-sectorial projects with a holistic approach. In the case of this project 7 out of 9: Agriculture, Disaster risk reduction, Food security, Forests protection, Rural development and Water management. Also, the project contributes to four outcomes of the AF (N°2, 3, 4 & 6) and to three outputs (N°3, 4 & 6).

The level of coherence between project objective and design with UNDAF its also high. The programme complies with the UNDAF Ghana which intends to follow the implementation of projects connected to the SDGs (sustainable development goals). In this case: the 1st one (No Poverty), linked to the increase of basic incomes and supporting communities; the 5th one (Gender Equality), with gender-oriented projects and improved representation of women; and the 6th (Clean Water and Sanitation), linked to improved management of water resources. Other SDGs are also in the line of this project like SDGs 13 (climate action). The UNDP Ghana focuses on: inclusive growth, sustainable development and democratic governance (and peacebuilding). Their vision is aligned with the project’s action as it includes action towards reducing poverty, improving gender equalities and representation, improving the efficiency of local administration and strengthening Ghana’s capacity to face environmental challenges

Overall Project Outcomes: The achievement of outcomes is rated as Moderately Satisfactory (MS) given the level of implementation. A lot has been achieved across the three components, and the Component 1 is rated as Highly Satisfactory. This has been achieved even with a delay in the start of the project because of the late release of funds.  However only 10 of initial 50 dams/dugouts projected was achieved by the December 2020. The rehabilitation of additional 5 dams have been commenced with committed budgets, which has improved the project fund expenditure rate to 84.48% ($6,356,932.32 + 649,758.19 related to the Project Cycle Management Fee) as at 31 December 2020. 25 out of 40 community tree nurseries and wood lots were achieved because of poor market, and 40 out of 50 dry season gardening schemes were implemented. (See Annex 6.9 -Physical project report summary).

Except for the development of 50 dams / dugouts, which was reduced to only 15, due to higher costs than estimated in the original project document. The cost effectiveness of the project has been “satisfactory”, due to the fact that project expenditures achieved so far reflect achievements that (generally) follow the goals of the results framework. Additionally, AF resources have been aligned with the financing and delivery of products that have competitive procurement components to ensure the best value for money. In addition, UNDP procurement procedures are followed.

Project implementation towards results: The project has set up important arrangements for activity management, planning, monitoring and evaluation and stakeholders’ participation. Corrective measures could include actions in internal communication, fund disbursement, recruitment processes, monitoring at local and district level and NGOs involvement in the project formulation process for a better understanding of the systematization of results according to indicators and a better gender perspective.

The project achieved the objective of obtained the necessary information for the establishment of actions that reduce the vulnerability of the selected communities, by improving the infrastructure for the collection and provision of water, establishing buffer zones for its long-term maintenance and enhanced activities that are resilient to projected changes in climate, including in this regard, an improvement in food security, household economic income and the empowerment of women. All these results have a high potential for sustainability over time due to the high involvement of different groups and community perspectives, now more trained, capable and empowered to collaborate themselves in monitoring and scaling up. The project provided (1) alternative livelihoods, (2) enhance national capacity and (3) management of water resource as climate change adaptation action.

Overall Quality of M&E: In terms of monitoring and evaluation, the project is rated as Moderately Satisfactory (MS). The project document describes a rigorous M&E plan in accordance to UNDP procedures. This included the definition of SMART indicators within a logical framework and the recruitment of an M&E officer within a whole data collection project. The M&E system quality as described in the Project Implementation Mechanism (PIM) is considered very high.

There were both adequate monitoring of environmental and social risks, and  a clear evidence of the involvement of relevant institutions (EPA and GIDA) and adaptation committees at the national, regional, district and community level in the monitoring of  activities in addition to monitoring functions performed by the Project Management Unit (PMU) ; There were however  some reports from NGOs indicating that there was a poor sense of timing at some stages of project implementation, since there was a lot of activities yet to be undertaken. . Besides, there is evidence showing that M&E budget was not sufficient and NGOs needed a better understanding of the systematization of results according to indicators. The project activities were monitored and evaluated at different levels: community, district, region and national level, with some improvement points at the local and district level.

The EPA offices at the Regional and District level monitored and reported on the project performance of the NGOs to the PMU and the Project Steering Committee (See Annex 1). The EPA submitted quarterly review of the Livelihood Sub-Project implementation performance reports of all the 46 NGOs involved as local partners in the implementation of the livelihood projects (bee keeping, dry season farming, agro-processing, fish farming, tree seedlings establishment) .  A study validation committee made up of UNDP, EPA, MESTI, MOFA, Gmet, WRC, CSRI-WRI, VRA, NADMO and MoF also periodically reviewed the performance of the NGOs who were selected by a bidding process as partners of the PMU to implement and deliver the livelihood projects (See Annex 2).

Besides, there is evidence showing that M&E budget was not sufficient, and NGOs needed a better understanding of the systematization of results according to indicators. The project activities are monitored and evaluated at different levels: community, district, region and national levels, with some room of improvement at the local and district level.

Effectiveness: The level of implementation and achievement of the products was evaluated as Moderately Satisfactory (MS). Much has been achieved across all three components, based on analysis of annual reports. The Component 1 “Water Resource Management and Planning under Climate Change”, had greatest achievements during the first year of implementation, all activities planned were completed. The Component 2 “Climate resilient management of water resources by 30 communities in northern Ghana”, fully achieved two of three outputs, with a greatest achievement in one of the targets of the output 2.2, which arise 145 of 100 operational boreholes projected, benefitting more than 30,000 people; and output 2.3, in which target arise 40 of 30 operational irrigation systems projected, benefitting at least 1,500 farmers. Component 3 “Enhanced diversification of livelihoods by 50 communities in northern Ghana”, fully achieved one of three outputs, with a greatest achievement in in output 3.2, which arise 57 of 40 community level women led agricultural product (shea butter or honey) processing schemes established, directly benefitting at least 1,200 women.

The outputs with the lowest achievements were output 2.2., specifically regarding the goal of designing, implementing and training the community in the construction of 50 dugouts / dams. Which later decreased to 12, after that decreased to only 10 reported in operation; and actually are 15 in total, 5 of them in construction. There were changes in the structure of existing dams, which required more works than originally anticipated. These additional works resulted in additional cost which does not permit the project to rehabilitate the planned dams at the beginning. Output 3.3, where 25 of 40 tree nurseries established benefiting over 400 direct beneficiaries in tree seedling were reached, and only 80% of dry season gardening schemes for women have been established, but 25% additional communities benefitted from the bee keeping schemes.

Baseline assessment of existing dams water storage capacity was conducted by GIDA: ascertained works that needed to be done for each site in order to increase the capacity of the dams and dugouts, particularly the dead volumes to meet the water demand of competing needs. This assessment served as a basis for determining the Engineers’ estimates of the works and informed about the designs and drawings to guide the rehabilitation works. The results of the study showed considerable siltation and reduced water storage capacities (See Table 12).

As stated in the project document, “The main indicator of vulnerability reduction will be changes in access to water and diversification of livelihood activities when income generation will increase by 30% in at least 50% of households in the communities”. There remain significant efforts for a better integration of the 3 components and better measurement of the progress in terms of livelihoods and adaptation capacity of the communities.

Project Finance / Efficiency: The financial execution of the project is rated as Satisfactory (S). The project achieved 79% ($6,009,665.4/$7,644,214*100) as at November 2020.  In order to improve the project fund utilization rate, the remaining balance of 21% has been committed in contracts including the cost of the terminal evaluations and contracts signed by government for the rehabilitation of 5 other dams (See Annex 6.14). This additional rehabilitation will bring the achievement rate of the 50 dams targeted in initially from 20% (10 out 50) as at 31 December 2020 to 30% (15 out 50) by 31 March 2021.  The low implementation rate is attributed to low initial budget estimate for the rehabilitation dams/dugouts at the project design stage. Thus, the actual terminal expenditure as at 31 December 2020 is in principle $6,356,932.32 (project activities) and $649,758.19 (programme cycle mgt fee). The total utilization represents 84.5% of the total project fund initiatives. 

Sustainability: The sustainability is rated as Likely (L). The project demonstrated increased productivity and income generation from dry season farming with irrigation/controlled water use relative to rain fed small holder farming. As a result, dry season gardening has become the preferred small holder farming practice. Integration of dry seasoning farming in the government’s programme of planting for food and jobs (PFJ) modules could provide continued support for the fencing, water supply and inputs to the communities to sustain the livelihood diversification.

Similarly, the number of small-scale shea nut processing and shea butter production plants, and cereals and grains milling plants established by the project could be packaged as bundled projects to benefit from the governments flagship programme of one district one factory (1D1F) for sustainability. Likewise, the maintenance of the 15 small dams and dug outs constructed or rehabilitated by the project under the government’s one district one dam policy and projects and Rearing for food and jobs (RFJ) would ensure sustainability of water supply for the dry season gardening and also enhance small scale aquaculture. In areas where fish farming was successful, there was very good harvest and cooperative earnings of the project beneficiaries. The dry season farming constituting about 51 % of livelihood projects have potential of reducing migration of the youth to urban and peri urban areas during the dry season. 

The Communities have established very active Village Saving & Loan Association (VSLA) for managing their incomes to allow for meeting maintenance needs. The system has the potential of being managed as treasure bills in the mainline banking for leveraging small loans facility for the expansion of fencing and cultivated lands, and cages for aqua culture, and maintenance of pumps and Agro-processing equipment.

PPR states that financial instruments have been established to ensure the ongoing flow of benefits once the assistance ends. The community have full-ownership of the boreholes and have started making monthly financial contributions towards repairs and maintenance.

The project contributed to the three learning objectives identified in the first year. These were based on the adaptation actions identified for the project which targeted the principal causes of climate change vulnerability in the Northern regions of Ghana. The continuity of the flagship programmes of the current government from 2020-2024 could become the key drivers for the suitability of the livelihood projects. This sustainability strategy could be realized through the handing over programme designed by MESTI, particularly the Agro-processing plants to the Local governments (MDAs) in the 4 regions (Northern, Upper East, Upper West and Savana). The MDAs are prepared to provide support to the projects to ensure their sustainability as part of the on-going flagship programmes.

Considering that the government is involved in the implementation of the project, long-term sustainability is always subjected to risks of political changes. As indicated in the PPR, the government has indicated its willingness to mobilize additional resources within its national budget and with support from international climate finance to support water resource management and implementation of resilient adaptation measures. However, there are no formal commitments to ensure the budget in the medium or long term and implementation will depend on the political willingness.

Stakeholders have demonstrated a high level of ownership. The government is expected to be helping the project objectives through its own programs, such as “water for all, infrastructure for all” to support access to water, the “one village, one dam” policy to support dam rehabilitation and planting for food and jobs programmes. On a local scale, NGO’s have implemented several strategies to create awareness and ensure long-term sustainability from beneficiaries, including actions like capacity building for project beneficiaries, setting up community-based Local Project Management Committee and partners, establishment of implementing committees, and training of local people to follow up the initiatives.

The private sector has also shown interest, Guinness Ghana Limited, as part of their water replenishment strategy, has consulted UNDP for a potential partnership to provide additional funding to support the upscaling and replication of the rehabilitation of the dams undertaken by the project.

The project released funds to the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO) to build the capacities of Climate Change Adaptation Committees at regional, districts and community levels to help contribute to achieving the national climate change targets as enshrined in the Sendai framework, to build the capacities of Climate Change Adaptation Committees at regional, districts and community levels.

The Climate Change Adaptation Monitoring Committees will also continue to provide platform for a long-term and sustained process of understanding adaptation, synergies, gaps, and the required adjustments in existing interventions to ensure that they are well integrated and contribute to broader climate change and development planning and delivery at the national, regional and local levels.

Leadership of the project has proven to have a clear understanding of the project objectives, strategies and implementation challenges. There has been a continuous learning on how to work with the communities and a clear ability to report and adapt the strategies based on the lessons learned. Therefore, the project leadership should have the ability to respond to future institutional and governance changes.

PPR claims that the capacities gained by the key government institutions through the development and implementation of the plans will be maintained and further use the experience to continue the project within their respective sectors and institutions. For example, most of the key institutions such Water Resource Commission and Environmental Protection Agency, have demonstrated its commitment to eventually mainstream project activities within their day-to-day activities.

Overall Quality of Implementation / Oversight and Execution: The project’s quality of implementation and execution is rated Satisfactory (S). The project shows a clear communication with all key stakeholders involved partners. The Project Performance Reports (PPR) were well organized and comprehensive, showing candor and realism. Risk management shown in the same reports were of good quality; and there is clear follow up of the risks and mitigation strategies. The project is coordinated by a Programme Steering Committee (PSC) and consists of high-level representatives from UNDP, MESTI, EPA, and key stakeholders from government agencies. However, the TE notes the main challenging issues during implementation included the delay in the release of funds, affecting implementation of activities. Audits were carried out in the years 2017, 2018 and 2019; and in all of them there was conformity in the reviews made. Only in 2017 was a finding made with its respective recommendation, which was corrected in 2018 and its risk estimated as medium. The finding referred to a negative balance of $ 311.

Gender equality and women’s empowerment: The dedicated resources for the inclusion and participation of women were necessary from the conceptualization and implementation of the livelihoods interventions and improved the ownership at the community level of the project interventions. This participation of women as active agents of climate change in decision-making, especially with regard to the type of livelihood interventions, made it possible to adopt them in certain communities, considering their particular circumstances. If the resources had not been provided means that the beneficiaries and their families would have seen their livelihoods deteriorate.

To ensure that the needs and concerns of women’s groups were reflected in the implementation of the project, resources were devoted to separate meetings and participation took place at a time and place convenient for marginalized groups, especially women.

As part of the engagement process with contractors and suppliers, an established criterion was developed to ensure that successful suppliers took into account gender and social inclusion issues in construction and in hiring local artisans in the construction of supply systems. One of the limitations was the lack of capacity to understand gender issues of community NGOs. To fill this gap, training workshops were organized for participating NGOs.

Women were directly involved in the entire value chain of dry season activities and other livelihood interventions such as fish farming and agricultural processing schemes. The inclusion and participation of women from the conceptualization and implementation of the livelihood’s interventions improved the ownership at the community level of the project interventions. Along these lines, the boreholes were located not far from the communities so as not to endanger the safety of women in their access to water, also providing access to drinking water to more than 30,000 people, mainly women and children.

There was a deliberate effort to ensure that a higher percentage (60%) of the project’s beneficiaries are women. This objective was achieved.

As part of the challenges, some NGOs showed limited capacity to include the gender variable in their projects, as well as the systematization and reporting of the indicators.

Cross-cutting and UNDP Mainstreaming Issues: The project increases the economic income of households, their access to water resources and their access to certain products that improve their food security, in both cases by generating new sources of employment and strengthening some products chains.

Many of these measures had positive repercussions on community natural resource management agreements, such as sustainable soil management, through agroforestry and better use of water, which has repercussions on the regeneration of these natural resources.

The investment made by the project through the construction of dams, dugouts and provision of irrigations systems, added to the judicious management of watersheds and the livelihoods interventions, improved food production for home consumption and market sale. And reduce the risks and vulnerabilities due to weather-induced disasters.

The project has also reduced the pressures on women’s groups. Dry-season gardening provided women, not only with access to income sources during the dry-season, but also importantly access to more diverse sources of food and water resources in ways that do not threaten their safety.

 

https://unfccc.int/non-annex-I-NCs

Ghana - Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC): Main report (English). Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/278431468337213682/Main-report

https://www.msdi.gov.gh/projects/3/; Ministry of Special Development Initiatives

https://mofa.gov.gh/site/programmes/pfj

https://www.moti.gov.gh/1d1f/about

AF-M&E Plan for Livelihood NGOs

 

Adaptation Fund Project, Report on Monitoring of Tree Planting Sites and Fencing Activities under the Adaptation Fund Project (EPA, February 2017)

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1E7a1skiNXrUl2HXpIpGbGa6RFxV9lMGE/view?usp=sharing

NGOs Livelihood sub-project implementation review reports

Report on the Review of Progress of Work of NGOs Implementing Livelihood Sub-Projects

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1P9Kf3dzL6D1qvlA5D1yj8HNpY5TweF59/view?usp=sharing

https://mofa.gov.gh/site/programmes/pfj

https://mofa.gov.gh/site/programmes/pfj/70-pfj/pfj-modules/328-rearing-for-food-and-jobs-rfj

https://mofa.gov.gh/site/agribusiness/investment-areas/53-enhancing-small-scale-aquaculture-towards-agribusiness-development

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1C0SCWrNuW3OELMJXDcMZs6iSViXuzJXI?usp=sharing

Stakeholder mapping 


Recommendations
1

Strengthening of local and institutional capacities for monitoring and maintenance of boreholes:

It is recommended to sign

  • Sign a Letter of Agreement with the district assemblies (in particular the Community Water and Sanitation Agency) to continue capacity building of the caretakers for all the boreholes constructed to enable a better monitoring and maintenance. The support should include:
    • Training of technician per village or group of neighboring villages.
  • Capacities to support the creation of a social business dedicated to providing a maintenance service. Given the number of boreholes, a fine-tuned business plan can be profitable. Such activity can be implemented by existing companies (agro-inputs providers for example).
2

Undertake evaluation of the project’s impacts after it has been handed over to communities:

Evaluate the level of impacts of installation, operation and maintenance of boreholes, which were recently constructed, as well as the impact of fish farming, dry season gardening and some agro-processing activities, including the “household economic approach” as part of the development of an econometric monitoring of a sample of households, and an evaluation to measure the replicability and scale up of the project in the North Region. The objective of this is to demonstrate the reduction of vulnerability and increase of income at project and regional level and their potentialities.

3

Implement the final financial audit: According to the agreement between AF and UNDP a final audited financial statement must be prepared by an independent auditor to be submitted within 6 months of the end of the implementing entity financial year. Considering the financial findings described before, the audit becomes of great importance to clarify the use of the funds and the actual project expenditure

4

Complete the construction of the 5 pending dams and evaluate state of the dams and boreholes before closure of project implementation:

To measure the state of functional operation of dugouts/dams’ systems, it is recommended that a survey be conducted, which should include:

  • The quality of the rehabilitation of the dams achieved (noting the failures and losses recorded after rehabilitation);
  • The actual dam storage capacities restored relative to the design capacities to allow for dry season farming throughout the dry season period;
  • The extent of the dam storage capacities restored over and above the dam dead volume, which is regulated to meet the demand competing ecosystem and multiple use needs (livestock, aquatic life).
  • The drying up canals for irrigation due to control of Dead Volume of Dams.

The control of the pest impacts (for example: pest resistant varieties and effective traditional herbal methods).

1. Recommendation:

Strengthening of local and institutional capacities for monitoring and maintenance of boreholes:

It is recommended to sign

  • Sign a Letter of Agreement with the district assemblies (in particular the Community Water and Sanitation Agency) to continue capacity building of the caretakers for all the boreholes constructed to enable a better monitoring and maintenance. The support should include:
    • Training of technician per village or group of neighboring villages.
  • Capacities to support the creation of a social business dedicated to providing a maintenance service. Given the number of boreholes, a fine-tuned business plan can be profitable. Such activity can be implemented by existing companies (agro-inputs providers for example).
Management Response: [Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2021/06/20]

Partially accepted. This is partly accepted because a letter of agreement with the district assemblies will not be necessary  as there are already existing structures established under the project and the local government system to continue to provide capacity building of the caretakers.  The existing arrangements are functioning effectively and therefore would not require additional administrative  burden of having to sign letter of agreement with the respective district assemblies. The project accepts part of the recommendations which require training of technicians to provide regular maintenance  support for the boreholes in each of the project communities. In particular, as part of the project activities, community level boreholes caretakers have been established to support the regular maintenance of the boreholes. Each of the caretaker groups were trained and equipped with basic tools. The caretakers constitute the trainer of trainers’ core groups that are  providing regular monitoring and maintenance services. These caretakers are already providing such services.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Provide regular training for the caretakers
[Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2022/01/05]
Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation in collaboration with the respective local assemblies and the trainer of trainers. 2022/06 Overdue-Initiated History
1.2 Annual (quarterly/semi-annual) monitoring of boreholes to ensure they are in functional state
[Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2022/01/05]
Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation in collaboration with the respective local assemblies and the trainer of trainers. 2022/06 Overdue-Initiated History
2. Recommendation:

Undertake evaluation of the project’s impacts after it has been handed over to communities:

Evaluate the level of impacts of installation, operation and maintenance of boreholes, which were recently constructed, as well as the impact of fish farming, dry season gardening and some agro-processing activities, including the “household economic approach” as part of the development of an econometric monitoring of a sample of households, and an evaluation to measure the replicability and scale up of the project in the North Region. The objective of this is to demonstrate the reduction of vulnerability and increase of income at project and regional level and their potentialities.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2021/06/22]

Fully Accepted. The impact evaluation of the project will be done in the form of a survey.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Undertake post project closure impact survey?
[Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2022/01/05]
The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology, and Innovation (MESTI) 2022/06 Overdue-Not Initiated History
3. Recommendation:

Implement the final financial audit: According to the agreement between AF and UNDP a final audited financial statement must be prepared by an independent auditor to be submitted within 6 months of the end of the implementing entity financial year. Considering the financial findings described before, the audit becomes of great importance to clarify the use of the funds and the actual project expenditure

Management Response: [Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2021/06/22]

Fully Accepted. The project has so far conducted three project  audits undertaken by Independent audit firms. Considering that the project is a NIM, there are existing funds with the  IP which are yet to be disbursed to the  vendors for the civil works contracted before the closure of  the project, and who will be paid upon completion and verification of completion status.  These funds with the IP are yet to be fully retired in the UNDP ATLAS system. The final audit of  the project will therefore be done in the first quarter of 2022, which is less than 6 months after the end of the UNDP financial year.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1.Undertake final audit of the project
[Added: 2021/06/22] [Last Updated: 2022/01/05]
UNDP 2022/06 Overdue-Not Initiated History
4. Recommendation:

Complete the construction of the 5 pending dams and evaluate state of the dams and boreholes before closure of project implementation:

To measure the state of functional operation of dugouts/dams’ systems, it is recommended that a survey be conducted, which should include:

  • The quality of the rehabilitation of the dams achieved (noting the failures and losses recorded after rehabilitation);
  • The actual dam storage capacities restored relative to the design capacities to allow for dry season farming throughout the dry season period;
  • The extent of the dam storage capacities restored over and above the dam dead volume, which is regulated to meet the demand competing ecosystem and multiple use needs (livestock, aquatic life).
  • The drying up canals for irrigation due to control of Dead Volume of Dams.

The control of the pest impacts (for example: pest resistant varieties and effective traditional herbal methods).

Management Response: [Added: 2021/06/20] [Last Updated: 2021/06/22]

Fully Accepted. A Joint Mission between UNDP and MESTI to assess the state  of the dams and boreholes will continue  to be undertaken as part of the Programme visit and assurance activities of the project

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Undertake field monitoring visit to assess the state of the dams and boreholes before the financial closure of the project
[Added: 2021/06/22] [Last Updated: 2022/01/05]
UNDP and The Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology, and Innovation (MESTI) 2022/06 Overdue-Initiated History

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