Mid-Term Evaluation of the Anti-Corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies (ACPIS) Global Programme

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Title Mid-Term Evaluation of the Anti-Corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies (ACPIS) Global Programme
Atlas Project Number: 00098167
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 09/2019
Planned End Date: 03/2019
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.2.3 Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures to maximize availability of resources for poverty eradication
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
SDG Target
  • 16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 28,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Kevin Deveaux
Tim Baker
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: DFAT
Countries: GLOBAL
Lessons
Findings
1.

FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

In conducting the MTE, the evaluation team relied on specific criteria upon which to measure if the programme was achieving results at the mid-point in its implementation. The criteria used for the MTE were defined in the ToR for the review. These criteria included the five standard development evaluation criteria: relevance; efficiency; effectiveness; impact; and sustainability.12 In addition, the evaluation team added other criteria that they considered relevant to this review – gender & inclusivity and partnerships. The definition or parameters for each criterion are defined under each sub-section below. 

RELEVANCE

Relevance is the criterion by which a programme or project is measured against a programme baseline, and in accordance with project design and formulation. This includes alignment with UNDP, donor and beneficiary strategic priorities. It also includes the context analysis that was conducted prior to the formulation of the programme and how the programme reflects such analysis. Finally, it also includes the specific design of the programme and how its activities and outputs reflect the specific work required to address the challenges listed in the context analysis.

Strategic Alignment A key aspect in formulating a programme such as ACPIS is to ensure it reflects the strategic priorities of the main stakeholders in the delivery of the programme – the beneficiaries, the implementer and donors. It is also important to measure the work of ACPIS against current global development priorities. With regard to UNDP’s strategic priorities, ACPIS was originally formulated and launched under one global Strategic Plan (2014-17) and is now being implemented under another (2018-21). Therefore, it is important to look at both Strategic Plans to determine of the programme is well aligned with UNDP’s development priorities.

The UNDP Strategic Plan (2014-17)13 noted key outcomes that relate to governance and anticorruption. Outcome 2 states: 

Outcome 2: Citizen expectations for voice, development, the rule of law and accountability are met by stronger systems of democratic governance 

Output 2.2 specifically relates to anti-corruption and its indicative targets are closely aligned with ACPIS’ work14:

Output 2.2: Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures across sectors and stakeholders 

Indicator 2.2.1: Number of countries with public access to information on contracting and revenues related to extractive industries and use of natural resources

Indicator 2.2.2: Number of proposals adopted to mitigate sector-specific corruption risks (e.g. extractive industries, and public procurement in the health and other sectors)


Tag: Relevance Anti-corruption Public administration reform Rule of law Policies & Procedures Programme/Project Design Country Government SDG Integration

2.

RELEVANCE (continuation)

Context

Considering the context in which ACPIS was formulated, the programme reflected current thinking on the impact of corruption on development, noting the loss of up to 5% of global GDP due to corruption. ACPIS also built on the final evaluation of the second phase of the global programme – GAIN – and addressed many of the concerns raised in that review. ACPIS also was designed to address three key variables in addressing corruption. First, it considers the need to integrate anti-corruption measures and approaches into development work broadly, through sectoral engagement and in the delivery of the 17 SDGs. This can best be seen in how the pilot projects were focused on key sectoral development issues, including education. In Thailand, the development of compulsory anti-corruption education for teachers in training will have a long-term impact on corruption in the education sector.

Second, the programme also utilized ACPIS to provide technical inputs to national anti-corruption strategies in a number of countries (e.g. – Bhutan ). For the latter, the programme worked with countries, such as Pakistan, in integrating anti-corruption objectives and principles into the national development planning process.

Third, ACPIS has supported the development of social accountability measures, thus enabling citizens to be more active in monitoring government expenditures and projects, which, in turn, should result in more transparency and less corruption. The Papua New Guinea (PNG) Phones Against Corruption (P@C) project was actively encouraging citizens to use SMS to identify potential corruption issues, thus supporting the government’s own establishment of public finance management (PFM) internal systems. 

Design

To some extent the programme continued the work started under GAIN to allow for national pilot projects that were allocated through a competitive selection process amongst UNDP COs. This has proven to be effective in ensuring the funds are allocated to COs with projects that are well aligned with government priorities and based on considerable analysis. The P@C project is a good example of where the UNDP CO developed a detailed situation analysis and worked with the Government of PNG from the start of the formulation to ensure the project was meeting the needs of national beneficiaries. It can also be seen in where projects were not allocated funding. In Vietnam, where the CO proposed work on social accountability, the lack of support from the government ensured that the project was not a good fit for the current political system in that country. The programme was also designed to allow for a more inclusive approach to fighting corruption. A focus on youth is evident in much of the work of the project, including the national pilot projects (e.g. – Bhutan school clubs) and in the research on the linkages between corruption and the prevention violent extremism (PVE). The programme design also has promoted innovation and thought leadership. As a global programme, a key role should be to identify, incubate and nurture new approaches and ideas for anti-corruption work. For example, with regard to thought leadership, ACPIS has initiated a new approach to addressing anti-corruption through integrity development. Working with sectors (i.e. – education; health) and key stakeholder groups (students; private sector), ACPIS is developing a potentially new line of anti-corruption development work that considers the need for long-term cultural changes if anti-corruption is to be successful and does not hit a “development wall”.


Tag: Relevance Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Donor relations Knowledge management Project and Programme management Crisis prevention Extremism Youth Technical Support

3.

EFFICIENCY

In considering efficiency as a development evaluation criterion, the evaluation team considered some specific measures. This starts with the cost-effectiveness of the programme in which two variables are considered – the quality of the inputs and the cost of delivering those inputs. It also includes whether or not the programme outputs were achieved. In considering these factors, it is important to also consider if the resources allocated overall for the programme were sufficient and if they changed from previous phases of the global programme. 

Cost-Effectiveness

In considering the cost-effectiveness of ACPIS, it is necessary to consider the type and quality of the inputs of the programme.

Inputs: As UNDP’s anti-corruption global programme has developed in the past ten years the type of inputs it provides have also developed. Prior phases of the global programme had more of a focus on knowledge sharing through static events (i.e. – trainings; seminars). During this phase such work is limited and focused only where a part of a broader technical assistance plan for specific beneficiaries, and also limited in potential sustainability as a result. During this phase, the work of ACPIS has become very much what one expects from a mature global programme, with a focus on the needs of beneficiaries and aligned with their priorities. Such inputs include:

Knowledge Broker: ACPIS has built a network of technical experts from which it can draw upon in linking such expertise with national partners and beneficiaries in a timely manner; • Technical Experts: ACPIS has provided technical assistance on a timely basis and when demand in present; • Incubator: ACPIS has used its resources to nurture new and innovative approaches to anticorruption that have allowed for ideas to be developed into potential anti-corruption systems; • Facilitator: The programme has used its timely interventions to promote with partners’ and beneficiaries’ new approaches to fighting corruption. Facilitation can also be seen in how small amounts of funding have enabled beneficiaries to leverage further resources to build anti-corruption systems • Thought Leader: ACPIS continues the work from GAIN where UNDP was investing in cutting-edge ideas and approaches to anti-corruption development, providing the space and time to develop such ideas and to test and try them in applied circumstances; and • Knowledge Manager: The programme has invested resources in new online courses that are available for all anti-corruption activists and practitioners to build their knowledge.

Based on the interviews conducted for this MTE, the beneficiaries expressed significant appreciation for the work of ACPIS through these inputs. The inputs were perceived as being of high quality. As an example of knowledge brokering, in Thailand, the Office of the General Comptroller was seeking to develop a database and dashboard to allow for the monitoring of procurement projects after the adoption of the new Public Procurement Act in 2016. ACPIS supported the UNDP Thailand CO to find the right technical expertise to support the office and its team in developing the tool. A second example can be seen in the work of the programme in facilitation. When the opportunity arose to work with the Government of Uzbekistan on new anti-corruption planning, ACPIS shared knowledge in a timely manner that allowed for a more robust plan than might otherwise have been developed.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Government Cost-sharing Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Rule of law Human and Financial resources Knowledge management Partnership Capacity Building Technical Support

4.

EFFECTIVENESS 

In evaluating effectiveness, the evaluation team considered the extent to which the programme has achieved its objectives. In particular, this includes determining if the objectives have been achieved or are on track to be achieved. It also means considering the major factors that will determine if the objectives will be achieved (or not). Given that this is a mid-term review, expectations are more limited and should consider if the programme is on track. The following table provides a simple summary of the status of the objectives of the programme(pg. 25)

Considering each objective in some detail, we can see the evidence upon which these conclusions are reached:

Objective 1: This objective focuses on integrating of anti-corruption approaches and ideas into public service delivery in specific sectors. This is to be achieved with a specific focus on youth, women and the private sector.


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Knowledge management Capacity Building Education Technology Youth

5.

SUSTAINABILITY

When considering the sustainability criterion, the evaluation team must look at whether or not the results or benefits of the programme will last beyond the interventions and resources of the programme. This will include two levels of sustainability – within UNDP and at the national level. 

UNDP Level

There are positives and negatives with regard to sustainability within the UNDP global architecture. On the positive side, ACPIS has achieved an important milestone. It has supported the integration of anti-corruption principles and solutions into the broader development agenda for UNDP. It is telling that a good portion of the work supported by ACPIS was not directly related to anticorruption development, but as a component of other development projects. For example, in the Philippines, the support for the creation of DevLIVE has been fully integrated into an education project where ICT equipment was provided to remote schools. On the negative side, the dismantling of the global anti-corruption architecture and regional focus of ACPIS due to Australia’s focus on the Indo-Pacific region have prevented UNDP from providing the guidance and quality assurance that many COs across the world need to ensure their work in the area of anti-corruption is based on best practices and innovative approaches. The lack of regional anti-corruption technical advisers in Africa and Latin America has left a major gap in UNDP ability to support national partners globally. 


Tag: Sustainability Government Cost-sharing Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Knowledge management Ownership Technology Policy Advisory Technical Support

6.

IMPACT

In considering impact as an evaluation criterion, the evaluation team must determine if there have been concrete, institutionalized achievements beyond the scope of the work of ACPIS, as a result of ACPIS interventions (e.g. – new legislation; new institutions; new relationships)?

Impact-level results are usually limited at the mid-term point, but ACPIS has been key in leveraging projects, funding and relationships that can be impactful in the future. Having pivoted its work towards upstream engagement with national partners, through more advanced partnerships (i.e. – knowledge brokering; technical advice; facilitation), ACPIS has set the foundation for impactful work in the future. However, there is one impact already identified during the first half of the programme. Its support in the development of tertiary school anti-corruption curriculum in Thailand has already resulted in it being made compulsory in post-secondary schools in the country.


Tag: Impact Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Knowledge management Partnership Education Technical Support

7.

GENDER EQUALITY & INCLUSIVITY

Gender equality and inclusivity is not one of the five OECD-DAC standard evaluation criteria, yet given one of the main objectives of the global programme is inclusivity, it makes sense to include it as a criterion. In addition, in many development evaluations it has become a “sixth criterion”. In considering these criteria, the evaluation team will measure the efforts made to (I) target interventions for women and other marginalised groups; and (ii) mainstream women and marginalised groups into all activities and outputs. 

Gender

With regard to gender, there were no pilot projects that specifically targeted women’s participation in the programme. However, ACPIS did produce knowledge materials that focused on gender equality and its role in fighting corruption. This can be seen in the the gender module that is part of the new online course that has been developed with the UN Staff College. It is also seen in the Anti-Corruption and Women’s Empowerment online course maintained on anticorruption.org. Other knowledge products also included specific components related to gender equality. Moreover, while selecting the country level projects, ACPIS included gender equality and inclusivity as one of the criteria in the Expression of Interest. Similarly, the ACPIS management made it mandatory for the country level projects to report data on results disaggregated by gender in their bi-annual and annual result reports. 

With regard to mainstreaming of gender equality, we can see from the pilot projects that efforts were made to ensure women were a significant portion of the beneficiaries of the work of the projects. For example, in the Philippines, 53% of the citizens trained to date to use the DevLIVE mobile app have been women. In Thailand, the training of trainer programme that was used to develop instructors for training on delivery of the anti-corruption curriculum included 50% women trainees.


Tag: Vulnerable Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender Parity Women's Empowerment Communication Knowledge management Capacity Building Education Technology Youth Data and Statistics

8.

PARTNERSHIPS

Another key criterion is to measure how well the global programme used networks and built partnerships to deliver results. To some extent, ACPIS has developed solid partnerships with key AC actors, including TI (global and in some countries). It’s partnership with TI is long-lasting and mutually beneficial, with both UNDP and TI being “two sides of the coin” for anti-corruption advocacy. Each relies on the other to have different entry points and for them to collaborate on their strategies. At the country level, this partnership can be seen in PNG, where Transparency International Papua New Guinea has promoted P@C through its Advocacy and Legal Advice Center. In turn, P@C has learned from previous anti-corruption interventions from TI PNG to recognise the need to roll out P@C in stages to avoid overloading government internal audit divisions.


Tag: Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Partnership Advocacy

9.

INNOVATION

In addition to the other criteria analysed above, it is important to also consider how ACPIS promoted innovation with regard to its approach to addressing anti-corruption. To a great extent the work of ACPIS, as with the previous phases of the global programme, has been focused on promoting innovation. Indeed, it could be argued that innovation is one the core objectives of a UNDP global programme.

In particular, ACPIS was able to promote innovation both in terms of the use of technology and in new thinking in the field of anti-corruption development. These two aspects of their work can be seen through two concrete examples:

Technology & Innovation: ACPIS funded pilot projects that were focused on the use of technology to promote social accountability. In the Philippines this was the DevLIVE mobile app. In PNG it was Phones Against Corruption. In both cases the projects were successful in establishing new forms of accountability through new technology. 

Innovative Thinking: This can be seen in ACPIS’s work in promoting integrity as a core means of establishing anti-corruption systems in a country. As noted elsewhere in this report, ACPIS has led the global thinking on this approach and has piloted it in certain countries, such as Bhutan, where support was provided to sectoral integrity development (i.e. – youth; private sector).


Tag: Anti-corruption Innovation Private Sector Technology Youth

10.

LESSONS LEARNED

Given the findings of this MTE based on the seven criteria noted above, the evaluation team notes the following lessons that can be ascertained from the work of ACPIS: 

• The design of the global programme around one donor’s priorities has not always allowed for the optimization of results. It has limited the footprint of the programme and made it a de facto regional programme. It has prevented a “basket fund” approach that would enable other donors to fund different regional outputs.

• ACPIS’s results have been focused primarily on the Asia-Pacific region with no emphasis on UNDP’s anti-corruption capacity in the other regions (e.g. - Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean). The lack of regional advisers in all UNDP regional hubs, however, has limited the programme’s ability to provide services and share knowledge globally.

• ACPIS has developed many good and innovative approaches to anti-corruption, but limited focus on sharing this knowledge within UNDP architecture and the broader anticorruption community. No Community of Practice (virtual or otherwise) has been a concern within UNDP circles, particularly since the 2015 restructuring of UNDP’s policy bureau. However, UNDP has recently been in the process of revitalizing the CoPs. A lesson learned from this MTE is that UNDP and donor partners should invest more resources to maintain a vibrant global anti-corruption community for sharing knowledge and lessons learned.

• In addition to a DFAT, UNDP and UNODC annual Steering Committee Meeting, UNODC and UNDP need to develop formal and informal routine opportunities to share information and activities so they can be aware of each other’s work and maximize impact in instances where evident implementation synergies exist. UNDP and UNODC, who are currently revising the 2008 MoU, should resume their annual MoU meetings, which have been useful in strengthening partnerships, resolving conflicts, and jointly implementing activities at the global, regional and country levels. Joint programming globally is not feasible, but without such formal linkages, routine information sharing becomes vital. 

• A UNDP global programme requires adequate funding and human resources to ensure a global footprint. Resource mobilizing must be a priority for any such programme to ensure there are sufficient professional staff and a minimum amount of funding to enable a global footprint. Although a donor partner could align its priorities by focusing on a particular region, country or thematic area, there needs to be a global footprint (a global anti-corruption programme) to maximize the impact of pooled funding by leveraging the global knowledge network and effectively serving as a global knowledge broker. 

• Pilot work at country level is results-oriented and even impactful, but what happens once a pilot is completed? Good ideas cannot be “orphaned” and DFAT and other donors need to work with local missions to ensure there is funding to see such projects “to the finish line” and to ensure institutional memory so that such pilot projects can be replicated through the lifetime of a given AC programme and beyond.

• ACPIS as a UNDP Global Programme should have as a priority, where they do not already exist, the establishment of funding for regional architecture to provide anticorruption support (Regional Technical Advisers; Regional Programmes).

• ACPIS continues to be a thought leader that is developing new approaches to fighting corruption and testing them in the field.

• ACPIS has transitioned to more “upstream” services which enable UNDP to provide highly valued support to national partners and beneficiaries. This includes technical advice, knowledge brokering, facilitation, thought leadership and knowledge development.


Tag: Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Communication Human and Financial resources Knowledge management Programme/Project Design Technical Support

11.

UNDP POSITION IN GLOBAL ANTI-CORRUPTION WORK

Given the work of UNDP and, in particular, its global programme on anti-corruption, over the past 12 years, we can now see the value and position of UNDP in its work in support of anticorruption development. There are other global organisations that work in this field – TI and UNODC are the most wellknown of these – and so it is important to consider what the added value of UNDP is in this field. From this MTE (and previous evaluations conducted) it is clear that UNDP does provide an added value. Some of the key values of the work of UNDP include:

Thought Leadership: UNDP, through ACPIS, is developing knowledge products and testing new methodologies for work in the anti-corruption field that is cutting-edge – work that is not being done by others (or cannot be done).

Mainstreaming Anti-Corruption in Development: Given UNDP’s broad global network and leadership role in development, its global programme has been able to engage this network to demonstrate that anti-corruption work can and is integral to development. Its work is not just about compliance with a convention or accountability, but is focused on the broader landscape required for successful anti-corruption work.

Innovation: ACPIS and its previous global programme phases have invested in new ideas and new technology to promote social accountability, create spaces for government to engage citizens and allow governments to be more transparent in their work.

Upstream Support to Partners: ACPIS is providing upstream support to national partners. This includes knowledge brokering, facilitation, knowledge sharing, thought leadership and highlevel technical advice. These services are much appreciated by national partners.

Partnership Management: In some ways, UNDP is uniquely placed to be the nexus through which global anti-corruption work and collaboration occurs. From its broad global network to its relationships it has built with key partners, ACPIS is facilitating a network of experts and implementers that otherwise may not exist.


Tag: Anti-corruption Innovation Integration Knowledge management Partnership Strategic Positioning Technology Policy Advisory

Recommendations
1

Establish and maintain a global anti-corruption architecture – both within UNDP and for the broader anti-corruption community.

There is a need for sufficient funding and staff to ensure UNDP has global, regional and, where demand is strong, national anti-corruption technical services. The Programme should be designed to allow for multiple donors to fund different regional and national priorities, but the focus of the Programme must remain global. For the global anticorruption community, ACPIS must have the resources to build and maintain partnerships with a broader network of actors—both within the UN system and externally with relevant anti-corruption actors and organisations.

2

ACPIS must maintain an active Community of Practice within UNDP for its anticorruption actors.

A key aspect of a global programme is to be a knowledge broker within UNDP. This should include many diverse tools and not only rely on in-person interactions between staff, but it must be robust and allow for routine engagement.

3

Where pilot projects develop new and innovative ideas and approaches to fighting corruption, there needs to be transition planning to ensure these ideas are institutionalised and replicated.

This is the second round of pilot projects for UNDP Global Anti-Corruption Programme. Many of the projects in this round showed success, but are not yet Institutionalised or complete. UNDP and donors must develop a plan for how these project outputs can formalized within national structures and, where possible, replicated.

4

Beyond this phase of UNDP Global Programme, consideration should be given to the following as priority areas for the next phase of the work: 

o Continue to develop the concept of integrity promotion as a means of fighting corruption (including more piloting and one or more key research studies to build the academic basis for such an approach)

o Focus on integration of anti-corruption measures into SDG implementation

o Expand social accountability work, including promotion of already piloted ideas and incubating new ideas

o Focus on technology and innovation as one of the emerging issues on anticorruption (e.g., there are good lessons learned from the Philippines and PNG on technology).

o Ensure sufficient human resources – globally and regionally – to provide timely and demand-driven support to national partners

5

UNDPs Anti-Corruption Work Needs Stronger Global Coordination:

ACPIS and UNDP’s Bureau for Policy and Programme Support need to take stock of knowledge which has been created and put it in practice worldwide. A repository and database of all anti-corruption skills available within UNDP would benefit all within the agency’s anti-corruption practice.

6

Increase Global Programme Staffing to Ensure Ability to Lead UNDP on AntiCorruption:

The global programme office should have more staff and individuals who manage individual aspects of UNDP’s global anti-corruption practice. The current contingent of staff are highly productive, but more staff is required to ensure the needs of a global architecture are being met. 

7

Build on Anti-Corruption Integration into UNDP’s Development Agenda:

ACPIS has shown the path to mainstreaming anti-corruption measures into all development projects and SDG objectives and targets, but now there must be a plan for replicating this work throughout UNDP’s projects and programming.

1. Recommendation:

Establish and maintain a global anti-corruption architecture – both within UNDP and for the broader anti-corruption community.

There is a need for sufficient funding and staff to ensure UNDP has global, regional and, where demand is strong, national anti-corruption technical services. The Programme should be designed to allow for multiple donors to fund different regional and national priorities, but the focus of the Programme must remain global. For the global anticorruption community, ACPIS must have the resources to build and maintain partnerships with a broader network of actors—both within the UN system and externally with relevant anti-corruption actors and organisations.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

UNDP will develop the next phase of ACPIS by the end of 2019 and will work together with DFAT/Australia for the next phase of funding. Given that ACPIS is also mobilizing resources from various donors (e.g., Sida, Norad, etc.), UNDP envisions to have a next phase of ACPIS as a global initiative with various donors prioritizing their respective areas of anti-corruption work, including their priority regions (e.g., Asia-Pacific region as Australia’s priority region). UNDP’s new Funding Windows are pooled, flexible funding mechanisms that help UNDP and partners align around common goals to support country-level efforts to achieve the SDGs. Anti-corruption is an integral part of UNDP’s funding window on governance and thus, for the next phase of ACPIS, UNDP plans to leverage the opportunity to maximize the pooled resources on anti-corruption through this funding window

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Extend current global project through the end of the current SP and develop a new anti-global corruption (ACPIS 2) while undertaking resource mobilization activities in parallel.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed This recommendation has been fully addressed by the global anti-corruption team. First of all, the ACPIS project ending in December 2020 has been extended until December 2021. In 2021, the global anti-corruption team will develop a new global anti-corruption programme ACPIS 2 for 2022-2025 that will be aligned with UNDP’s new Strategic Plan for 2022-2025. In addition, ACPIS project mobilized additional resources from Sida (around $2.5mln) in the end of 2019 and Norad (around $2.2mln) in the end of 2020. While the scope of the programme remains global, the support will be provided to target countries in the Asia-Pacific and Africa regions. Resource mobilization activities are ongoing and will have continuous nature as the programme team shapes its next generation global anti-corruption programme. The ACPIS team further strengthened a global anti-corruption architecture within UNDP by closely engaging with anti-corruption and governance advisors in all regions as well as working with various teams within UNDP such as global health team, peacebuilding and conflict teams to integrate anti-corruption in various development areas. In addition, ACPIS team closely works with the WHO, the Global Fund and the World Bank as part of the Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (ACTA) for Health Alliance to address corruption in the health sector. The global ACTA project will be implemented in 2021 with funding from Norad. UNDP’s global anti-corruption and health teams will be actively engaged in project implementation at the global and country levels. The global anti-corruption team also worked with the B20 to advance the agenda on empowering women leaders across the supply chain to promote women’s empowerment, business integrity and anti-corruption. UNDP, UNODC and UN/DPPA are co-chairs of the UN Global Task Force on Corruption. The Task Force aims to strengthen a One UN approach in addressing global corruption challenges. The ‘UN Common Position to Address Global Corruption’ was developed by the Global Task Force to establish a common framework for the United Nations system on support to Member States to prevent and respond to corruption challenges.
2. Recommendation:

ACPIS must maintain an active Community of Practice within UNDP for its anticorruption actors.

A key aspect of a global programme is to be a knowledge broker within UNDP. This should include many diverse tools and not only rely on in-person interactions between staff, but it must be robust and allow for routine engagement.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

In early 2019, as part of UNDP’s policy and programme support review, UNDP has established a Global Policy Network (GPN) bringing together various thematic areas including governance into one connected network. The vision of UNDP’s GPN is to become the cutting-edge provider of timely development advice; providing support to Country Offices and programme countries in an integrated and coherent manner— to instantly connect countries to the world of knowledge, resources and networks of best practice they need to achieve development breakthroughs. AS part of the GPN, UNDP established seven Communities of Practice, aligned with the six signature solutions and with the SDG Integration mandate. The anti-corruption Community of Practice, which is a part of UNDP’s GPN on Governance, has a long history and comprises UNDP’s staff at global, regional and country levels, as well as UNDP’s programme and donor partners. Since 2003, UNDP has been organizing regional and global community of practice meetings to strengthen its policy and programme architecture. UNDP organized two regional anti-corruption community of practice meetings in 2019 (Europe and CIS region in May and Asia-Pacific region in June) and will organize a global community of practice meeting in 2020 in Seoul, back-to-back with the International Anti-Corruption Conference. ACPIS will continue to coordinate the anti-corruption community of practice, including regional and country level networks on anti-corruption.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Actively promote platforms and mechanisms for knowledge generation, exchange, and uptake in the areas of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed UNDP’s global anti-corruption programme has been a knowledge broker within UNDP on issues related to transparency, accountability and anti-corruption and leads UNDP’s global anti-corruption community of practice that is part of Global Policy Network (GPN) on governance. In March 2020, the global anti-corruption team carried out a global anti-corruption community of practice survey with 127 governance, SDG 16 and anti-corruption focal points from UNDP Country Offices, Regional Hubs, Global Policy Centres and Headquarters participating in this survey. 62% of respondents highlighted that they have ongoing or soon to be launched anti-corruption projects in their respective Country Offices. Around 72% of respondents noted that anti-corruption is part of their governance projects. Around 60% of respondents highlighted that Country Offices lack financial resources and technical capacities to implement anti-corruption initiatives. In addition, in 2019 global anti-corruption team supported in organizing two Regional Community of Practice Meetings (Asia-Pacific and Europe-CIS) as well as actively engaged in promoting global advocacy through participating in High-Level Political Forum, UN Public Service Forum, OECD Anti-Corruption Task Team, OECD Anti-Corruption and Integrity Forum, Conference of States Parties to UNCAC, International Anti-Corruption Conference, commemoration of International Anti-Corruption Day. In 2020, in the context of COVID-19, 2 knowledge products on transparency, accountability and anti-corruption in COVID-19 response and recovery were developed: methodology and guidance note/service offer. 4 webinars were organized to exchange knowledge on integrating anti-corruption in crisis response and recovery priorities, including sharing good practices from COs. UNDP’s global anti-corruption programme also shared global experiences in country-level webinars on anti-corruption and COVID-19 (e.g. Liberia, Kenya, etc.). 3 blogs on anti-corruption and COVID-19 were jointly published with partners including WHO, Global Fund, and World Bank, focusing on: the role of technology, and an integrated approach to mitigating corruption risks in the health sector. While this recommendation is ongoing in its nature, activities have been robust and will continue to be through the remainder of ACPIS and in anticipation of ACPIS2.
3. Recommendation:

Where pilot projects develop new and innovative ideas and approaches to fighting corruption, there needs to be transition planning to ensure these ideas are institutionalised and replicated.

This is the second round of pilot projects for UNDP Global Anti-Corruption Programme. Many of the projects in this round showed success, but are not yet Institutionalised or complete. UNDP and donors must develop a plan for how these project outputs can formalized within national structures and, where possible, replicated.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

In many country level projects, governments have already invested to sustain country level results achieved through ACPIS’ support, with examples presented below. ACPIS will continue to promote the sustainability of country level results and maximise impact of the country projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support countries in the institutionalization of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption initiatives, thereby strengthening prospects for sustainability.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed In the framework of this project, the recommendation has been fully addressed. The mid-term evaluation already showed that the pilot projects have been successful at the mid-point of their implementation. ACPIS team continued its support to these countries to ensure that the initiatives are institutionalized. For example, in the Philippines the DevLive initiative has been included as a Government commitment in the Open Government Partnership action plan. In Bhutan, the youth and business integrity initiatives supported in the framework of ACPIS have been included in country’s National Anti-Corruption Strategy for 2019-2023. In Myanmar, building on the anti-corruption initiative supported by ACPIS, the President’s Office endorsed the establishment of Corruption Prevention Units (CPUs) in line ministries to improve oversight and accountability. As a result, CPUs have been established in 22 ministries and government organizations. The Cabinet of Thailand approved the integrity curriculum and made it mandatory for 67 public universities. Ensuring sustainability of initiatives and institutionalization of transparency, accountability and anti-corruption measures are at the center of global anti-corruption team’s support to the countries. In the new initiatives supported by Sida and Norad, the ACPIS programme envisions moving from pilot projects to more long-term initiatives by actively engaging the government counterparts from the outset of project planning, contributing more financial resources and ensuring that measures envisioned during the life of the project are institutionalized by the government prior to the completion of the initiatives.
4. Recommendation:

Beyond this phase of UNDP Global Programme, consideration should be given to the following as priority areas for the next phase of the work: 

o Continue to develop the concept of integrity promotion as a means of fighting corruption (including more piloting and one or more key research studies to build the academic basis for such an approach)

o Focus on integration of anti-corruption measures into SDG implementation

o Expand social accountability work, including promotion of already piloted ideas and incubating new ideas

o Focus on technology and innovation as one of the emerging issues on anticorruption (e.g., there are good lessons learned from the Philippines and PNG on technology).

o Ensure sufficient human resources – globally and regionally – to provide timely and demand-driven support to national partners

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

As identified by this evaluation and UNDP’s anti-corruption community of practice, UNDP indeed is focusing on these emerging issues, which will be prioritised in future projects and in the continued partnership with DFAT/Australia. ACPIS will continue to promote integrity, focus on integrating anti-corruption in SDG implementation, expand social accountability work, and focus on technology and innovation as an emerging issue on anti-corruption. ACPIS will also explore synergies with the newly-established Global Centre for Technology, Innovation and Sustainable Development in Singapore, for possible collaboration on activities where anti-corruption, technology, innovation and sustainable development are linked.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Address priority areas including integration promotion, integration of anti-corruption measures in SDG implementation; expand social accountability work; increase focus on technology and innovation on emerging issue on anti-corruption; ensure sufficient human resources to respond to demand of national partners.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed This recommendation is fully implemented. Since 2018 when the mid-term review was conducted, UNDP’s global anti-corruption team supported more than 60 countries across all regions to prevent and address corruption, working closely with national government institutions and anti-corruption agencies, civil society organisations and the private sector to integrate anti-corruption measures in SDG implementation, national, sectoral and local development plans and processes; strengthen institutional capacity to implement, measure and monitor SDG 16 and its anti-corruption targets; leverage technology and innovation to promote integrity and anti-corruption; empower civil society (including women and youth) to enhance social accountability; and engage with the private sector to promote a fair business environment. In addition, the global anti-corruption team with the 2 new projects funded by Sida (2020-2023) and Norad (2020-2023) will be supporting selected countries in Africa and Asia-Pacific region to implement initiatives aimed at promoting integrity in service delivery, integrating anti-corruption into SDG implementation, engaging citizens, youth and women groups in monitoring service delivery, supporting digital governance, technology and innovation initiatives for transparency, accountability and anti-corruption.
5. Recommendation:

UNDPs Anti-Corruption Work Needs Stronger Global Coordination:

ACPIS and UNDP’s Bureau for Policy and Programme Support need to take stock of knowledge which has been created and put it in practice worldwide. A repository and database of all anti-corruption skills available within UNDP would benefit all within the agency’s anti-corruption practice.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

UNDP’s global anti-corruption team will continue to coordinate regional and country level teams in terms of providing policy and programme support, including guidance, knowledge, and facilitation. ACPIS will also improve its anti-corruption knowledge strategy through the following ways: 1) Producing publications in other languages; and 2) Revising and updating all online courses that are made available to both internal and external stakeholders. In line with UNDP’s Global Policy Network (GPN), the global anti-corruption team will strengthen its community of practice architecture, for stronger global coordination of UNDP’s anti-corruption work. As mentioned above, two regional community of practice meetings were organized in 2019 (Europe and CIS region in May and Asia-Pacific region in June).

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Facilitate and coordinate knowledge generation, exchange and uptake across UNDP's global anti-corruption architecture/community of practitioners.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed UNDP’s global anti-corruption team continued to coordinate work of regional and country teams as it relates to provision of policy and programme support on anti-corruption, including guidance, knowledge and facilitation. As noted in the Management Response, ACPIS team has improved its anti-corruption knowledge strategy as follows: 1) Produced knowledge projects in other languages. For example, in the context of COVID-19, 2 knowledge products on transparency, accountability and anti-corruption in COVID-19 response and recovery were translated into French and Spanish, made available on UNDP’s website and shared with French and Spanish speaking country offices; 2) Is revising and updating its online courses on regulars basis. For example, the online course on Integration of Anti-Corruption in 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was updated and a module related to COVID-19 and related corruption risks was added to the course. In addition, as noted under Recommendation 1 the ACPIS team further strengthened a global anti-corruption architecture within UNDP by closely engaging with anti-corruption and governance advisors in all regions as well as working with various teams within UNDP such as global health team, peacebuilding and conflict teams to integrate anti-corruption in various development areas. Work with ACTA Health Alliance, B20, UN Global Task Force on Corruption, close coordination with UNODC, donor and programme partners have strengthened UNDP’s anti-corruption work at the global level and improved its global coordination.
6. Recommendation:

Increase Global Programme Staffing to Ensure Ability to Lead UNDP on AntiCorruption:

The global programme office should have more staff and individuals who manage individual aspects of UNDP’s global anti-corruption practice. The current contingent of staff are highly productive, but more staff is required to ensure the needs of a global architecture are being met. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

ACPIS is currently working on the next phase of partnership with DFAT/Australia to develop a four-year project (2020-2024). ACPIS is also currently in negotiation with Sida on the partnership on anti-corruption and the SDGs. These will allow for strengthening the capacity of the global anti-corruption team to meet the needs of the global anti-corruption practice. UNDP is also currently in discussion with the Republic of Korea and with Sida, to have 2 staff seconded to the global anti-corruption team.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Secure additional resources and engage experts (e.g secondments, consultants) to bolster overall global expert staffing available to meet the needs of the UNDP global anti-corruption architecture.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed The negotiations with the Republic of Korea resulted in signing an agreement of secondment from Korea’s Anti-Corruption agency (ACRC) for 2 years (2020-2021). In addition, global anti-corruption team is closely working with regional anti-corruption advisors and where possible engaging individuals who manage specific activities on cost-sharing basis. For example, to develop an online course on Integrity in Public Procurement, global anti-corruption team together with the anti-corruption team of Bangkok Regional Hub hired international consultants to develop content of the online course and technical framework of the course on a cost-sharing basis. In addition, as global anti-corruption team is housed in the Singapore Global Policy Center, the financial and operations support is being cost-shared with the Center. With the additional resources received from Sida and Norad, the ACPIS team will hire individuals who will manage specific aspects of the programme. ACPIS team will continue to look into possibilities to engage more staff into its global team on an ongoing basis.
7. Recommendation:

Build on Anti-Corruption Integration into UNDP’s Development Agenda:

ACPIS has shown the path to mainstreaming anti-corruption measures into all development projects and SDG objectives and targets, but now there must be a plan for replicating this work throughout UNDP’s projects and programming.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/16] [Last Updated: 2020/12/31]

In 2019, UNDP launched an online course ‘Anti-Corruption in the Context of the 2030 Agenda’, which trained 100 participants across 45 countries. The second edition of training will be launched in August 2019. In addition, the next phase of the partnership with DFAT/Australia and the upcoming partnership with Sida will strengthen national level capacity to mainstream anti-corruption measures into all development projects and SDG objectives and targets, through online and face-to-face training, national SDG platforms, and supporting measurement and monitoring of anti-corruption targets in the SDGs. ACPIS will also tap into the expertise and experience of the newly established Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability in Health Systems (GNACTA), which is established by World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and UNDP, with an aim of strengthening integrity in health funds and programmes by mitigating corruption and other risks to accelerate the progress on SDGs. ACPIS will continue to build synergies with UNDP’s projects and programming, to support the integration of anti-corruption in all development projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Deepen integration of anti-corruption with other development sectors in support of SDG achievement.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project team 2020/12 Completed ACPIS team has continued its successful collaboration with UN System Staff College to develop and implement the online course on ‘Anti-Corruption in the Context of the 2030 Agenda’, with significant inputs from UNODC, Sida, GIZ, OHCHR, U4, and the International Anti-Corruption Academy. It has rolled out 4 editions (as of Dec 2020), and has trained more than 500 participants from over 80 countries around the world. In addition, as noted in the key action under recommendation 1, ACPIS team closely works with the WHO, the Global Fund and the World Bank as part of the Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (ACTA) for Health Alliance to address corruption in the health sector. This partnership will be implemented in 2021 with new funding from Norad. UNDP’s global anti-corruption and health teams will be actively engaged in project implementation at the global and country levels. This initiative will enable integration of anti-corruption in the health sector.

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