Terminal Evaluation of Enabling Environment for SLM to Overcome Land Degradation in the Uganda Cattle Corridor Districts of Uganda

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Uganda
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
04/2016
Completion Date:
06/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

This Terminal Evaluation (TE) has been conducted as part of the Monitoring and Evaluation plan of the UNDP/GEF Project: “Enabling Environment for SLM to overcome Land Degradation in the Uganda Cattle Corridor Districts”, and will be referred to as the “Project” in the scope of this report. The TE mission to Uganda was conducted from 14th to 23nd December 2015. Extensive consultations with the project partners were also conducted prior and following the mission to ensure a good understanding of the project’s results; leading to the submission of the TE report on the date of this report.

Brief Description of Project

The Uganda Cattle Corridor covers an estimated area of 84,000 km2 (i.e. 43% of the country's total land area), and is home of 6.6 million people. The corridor is a semi-arid transition zone across the centre of the country, between the wet forest/grassland mosaics to the south around Lake Victoria, and the arid grasslands on the Sudanese boarder in the north (Karamoja). Most of the cattle corridor was traditionally inhabited by pastoralists who communally grazed their herds on the range, mixed with limited rain-fed agriculture. The corridor is host to a mixed production system comprising of nomadic pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and subsistence farmers; all subsisting in the drylands with a production system characterized by five critical facts: unclear, insecure land and resource tenure, increasing demand for biomass energy, low levels of economic growth, high and growing population and uncertain climatic conditions. The corridor exhibits serious land and resource degradation driven by overgrazing, inappropriate agriculture practices and charcoal production leading to deforestation. Overall impact of degradation has been the disruption of ecosystem services, particularly provisioning services due to: habitat fragmentation that reduces complexity and diversity; soil erosion with consequent declining soil fertility and declining productivity; and, invasion by termites and nutrient loading of water bodies. Weaknesses in the policy and policy implementation, weak capacity for the use of knowledge to guide land use planning and the lack of alternative income generating activities to support local economic development and sustainable land management are three key barriers that hinder adoption of sustainable land management systems in the cattle corridor.

The project’s goal is “Sustainable Land Management” that provides the basis for economic development, food security and sustainable livelihoods while restoring the ecological integrity of the Cattle Corridor ecosystem. The objective of the project is to provide land users and managers with the enabling policy, institutional and capacity environment for effective adoption of SLM within the complexity of the cattle corridor production system, achieved through 3 major outcomes plus a project management component.

The objective of the project is to provide land users and managers with the enabling policy, institutional and capacity environment for effective adoption of SLM within the complexity of the cattle corridor production system. The project sought to achieve three outcomes:

Outcome 1: The policy, regulatory and institutional environment support sustainable land management in the cattle corridor (in particular policy and legislation for sustainable charcoal and tenure security strengthened).

Outcome 2: Knowledge based land use planning forms the basis for improving dry lands sustainable economic development

Outcome 3: Local economic development strengthened through diversification and improved access to finance and insurance

The Project Document was approved jointly by Government of Uganda, GEF and UNDP in August 2010 for the duration of four years. The Project is Executed by the Government of Uganda’s Ministry of Finance, Economic Planning and Development and implemented by Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries through Project Management Unit (PMU) with support from UNDP Country Office (UNDP CO) in close coordination with various other institutions and local communities. UNDP as implementing agency was responsible for the completion of all activities including procurement, recruitment, monitoring, and financial disbursement. The Project has been executed in accordance with the standard rules and procedures of the UNDP NEX Execution Modality. The Project budget is US$ 4,230,730 of which US$ 1,830,730 is the GEF Grant and US$200,000 is provided by the UNDP CO. The remaining financing is provided by the Government of Uganda (US$ 100,000) and resource users in the corridor (US$100,000).

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Title Terminal Evaluation of Enabling Environment for SLM to Overcome Land Degradation in the Uganda Cattle Corridor Districts of Uganda
Atlas Project Number: 00058105
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Uganda
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 06/2016
Planned End Date: 04/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.3. Solutions developed at national and sub-national levels for sustainable management of natural resources, ecosystem services, chemicals and waste
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: Global Environmental Facility
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 30,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dr. Arun Rijal Team Leader arunrijal@yahoo.com INDIA
Dr. John Ejiet Wasige Member johnwasige@g,ail.com UGANDA
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Enabling Environment for SLM to Overcome Land Degradation in the Uganda Cattle Corridor Districts of Uganda
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Land Degradation
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 3393
PIMS Number: 3227
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
Countries: UGANDA
Lessons
1.

Strategic

  • Local adaptation knowledge is easily adapted by the rural communities. Local knowledge should be promoted together with scientific knowledge to respond to local situation as they are more easily adapted by the rural communities. Local communities were good in identifying signs of land degradation and proposing suitable and feasible mitigation measures. One example observed in Nakasongola district was that local communities proposed and piloted night kraaling as a method of reclaiming bare patches of land, locally known as “biwaramata”. Night kraaling is a practice where the communities confine cattle in a small paddock of a bare patch for several nights to allow the livestock to concentrate the dung deposing in this small area. The dung provides nutrients for the seeds that exist in the dung to germinate and colonise the hitherto bare patches of land. After the bare patch has fairly recovered, the night kraal is shifted to another part of the bare ground for reclamation.
  • The farmer exchange visits promoted farmer to farmer learning and technology transfer from one community to another. This is the best way for transferring technology to farmers as farmers could explain by simplifying the technical terms more appropriately to another farmer making learning more effective.

2.

Design

  • Working directly through existing government structures brings dividends

    The project chose to work directly with the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, five other ministries and local government, rather than setting up parallel implementation structures. This decision has proved very successful not only in empowering government by providing experience and training, but also in developing effective government “ownership”, engagement, participation and motivation, thereby promoting long-term sustainability of the project’s achievements.

  • Designing a project linking various institutions from grassroots level institutions, government agencies, local authorities and communities generates huge benefits for sustainability, and through the synergies developed provides the intervention with much greater effectiveness than that which can be achieved by stand-alone projects.

    The project chose to work with various institutions of different levels and local communities. This helped in empowering these institutions by providing experience, training and equipping in a well-funded and well-equipped environment and also in developing effective “ownership”, engagement, participation and motivation, thereby promoting long-term sustainability of the project’s achievements at community levels. It also helped to generate local guardianship (from community organisations or groups, local authorities and National Government’s relevant sectors) that made project implementation efficient and effective.

  • Community participation in the project design, formulation of implementation modality, implementation and monitoring is very important. This will help to implement projects effectively and also make activities sustainable. In this project, the inclusion of local communities, through the small grants approach helped local communities to identify environmental issues that need to be addressed and enabled them to innovate a wide range of mitigation measures and livelihood improvement strategies.

,

Project Management

  • Constant contacts with communities are vital to community-based land degradation risk management projects. Good communication and regular communication in relation to project activities with the communities helps to promote successful, community-based projects as they built trust and motivation of the targeted local communities. To achieve this, the quality and commitment of those employed at the sites are key attributes of a project. This project has been benefited from efficient site coordinators and technical staff. But what the evaluation team believes to be the most important factor is the almost constant contact that they have had with the communities throughout the project’s lifetime. This frequency of contact has undoubtedly enabled the project to build high levels of trust, capacity, and motivation which in turn has facilitated the change in people's mind-sets and behaviours and brought about the success of the SLM schemes. The role of the National Project Manager is very vital in motivating field staffs.

     

  • Implementation by the institution with long experience and capacity makes program technically sound.All technical activities i.e. sustainable agriculture practices, contour making, minimum tillage, water harvest, energy efficient cooking stoves, efficient kiln for charcoal production etc. were implemented through MAAIF, MEMD, MLHUD and MWE which have very long experience, broad institutional set up from national to field level and experienced personnel. This assured technical standards of implementation of activities and their performances. Due to involvement of experienced and technically strong institutions, technical implementation has gone smoothly and brought about satisfactory results, generally thought to be of a high standard.

     

  • High participation of women in groups and forming women’s groups will assure more success.

Women were found more serious in SLM activities. It was observed that the groups with more women and women groups were more efficient in implementation and functioning and able to generate expected results. This also helped to generate leadership and develop decision making authority among them and also increased income through income generating activities


Findings
1.

1. Monitoring and Evaluation

rating

2. IA& EA Execution

Rating

M&E design at entry

Moderately

Satisfactory

Quality of UNDP supervision/backstopping

 Satisfactory

M&E Plan Implementation

Moderately Satisfactory

 

Quality of Execution by Executing agency

Moderately Satisfactory

Overall quality of M&E

Moderately Satisfactory

Overall quality of Implementation / Execution

Moderately

Satisfactory

3. Assessment of Outcomes

 Rating

4. Sustainability

Rating

Relevance

 Relevant 

Financial resources:

 Likely 

Effectiveness

Moderately Satisfactory

Socio-political:

 Likely 

Efficiency

Moderately Satisfactory

Institutional framework and governance:

 Likely 

Likelihood of Impact

Moderately Satisfactory

 

Environmental :

 Likely 

Overall Project Outcome Rating

Moderately

Satisfactory

Overall likelihood of sustainability:

 Likely 

Stakeholder participation

Satisfactory


Recommendations
1

 MAAIF and MWE should share knowledge from the pilot that saw 100Ha of land invaded  by Lantana camara  rehabilitated using bio-briquetting technology with different institutions working in this field so that they could initiate similar activities/interventions (e.g. bio briquettes production) into future

2

MAAIF, MWE and MEMD should recommend organizations working with them to promote use of biogas, solar cookers, dryers and solar pumps as part of reducing the demand for biomass for energy and thus reduce land degradation.

3

The design of water dams should be modified to allow delivery of water into  drinking troughs by gravity instead of use of diesel maned pumps, which make maintenance costs high, creating need for endowment funds

4

Project Monitoring and feedback mechanisms should be strengthened to allow quick decision making regarding change in strategies for interventions that do not yield expected results.

5

The process of increasing security of land tenure for farming and livestock keeping should be continued

6

The technical problem at the Metrology department that is preventing delivery of information from the 2 weather stations established and to the farmers’ mobile phones needs to be addressed. This will also encourage farmers to use the weather based index insurance to improve their income security with reduced risk.

7

Local governments should be encouraged to implement the land use plans developed by the users in the pilot parishes and to familiarize farmers with the land use planning guidelines

8

The sequence of project activities should be planned to take care of complementary activities , the ones weather specific and also to disseminate the lessons learned from this project to attract funding for more actions in the cattle corridor

1. Recommendation:

 MAAIF and MWE should share knowledge from the pilot that saw 100Ha of land invaded  by Lantana camara  rehabilitated using bio-briquetting technology with different institutions working in this field so that they could initiate similar activities/interventions (e.g. bio briquettes production) into future

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will coordinate with MAAIF and MWE to share the results of the pilot and make them useful to MEMD that promotes technologies for charcoaling, a project to which both contribute.
[Added: 2016/07/01]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/06 Completed Completed
2. Recommendation:

MAAIF, MWE and MEMD should recommend organizations working with them to promote use of biogas, solar cookers, dryers and solar pumps as part of reducing the demand for biomass for energy and thus reduce land degradation.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The findings of this evaluation shall be shared with stakeholders managing the national SLM program so that they are mainstreamed. The project closure function is scheduled for July 2016.
[Added: 2016/07/01]
Program Coordinator SLM MAAIF 2016/06 Completed completed
3. Recommendation:

The design of water dams should be modified to allow delivery of water into  drinking troughs by gravity instead of use of diesel maned pumps, which make maintenance costs high, creating need for endowment funds

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The findings of this evaluation shall be shared with stakeholders managing the national SLM program and similar ones in dry lands so that they are mainstreamed.
[Added: 2016/07/01] [Last Updated: 2016/07/03]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/06 Completed Completed History
4. Recommendation:

Project Monitoring and feedback mechanisms should be strengthened to allow quick decision making regarding change in strategies for interventions that do not yield expected results.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP has consistently held dialogue with MAAIF on the issue of human resource sufficiency for extension services and to monitor the projects more closely. MAAIF finally agreed to recruit more extension staff, with support from Min of Finance
[Added: 2016/07/01]
Project Coordinator / MAAIF 2016/06 Completed Completed
5. Recommendation:

The process of increasing security of land tenure for farming and livestock keeping should be continued

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP handed over the process to MoLHUD in advance and so this should continue uninterrupted
[Added: 2016/07/01]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/06 Completed Completed
6. Recommendation:

The technical problem at the Metrology department that is preventing delivery of information from the 2 weather stations established and to the farmers’ mobile phones needs to be addressed. This will also encourage farmers to use the weather based index insurance to improve their income security with reduced risk.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
MAAIF shall encourage the service providers of weather based insurance to keep the premiums affordable
[Added: 2016/07/01] [Last Updated: 2018/09/18]
â?¢ MAAIF 2020/12 Initiated Initiated and this is an on-going activity History
7. Recommendation:

Local governments should be encouraged to implement the land use plans developed by the users in the pilot parishes and to familiarize farmers with the land use planning guidelines

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
MAAIF shall encourage the local governments to mainstream land use planning into their budgeting process so it can be funded at that level
[Added: 2016/07/01] [Last Updated: 2018/09/18]
Project coordinator MAAIF 2020/12 Initiated This is an on-going activity History
8. Recommendation:

The sequence of project activities should be planned to take care of complementary activities , the ones weather specific and also to disseminate the lessons learned from this project to attract funding for more actions in the cattle corridor

Management Response: [Added: 2016/07/01]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The findings of this evaluation shall be shared with stakeholders managing the national SLM program and similar ones in dry lands so that they are mainstreamed.
[Added: 2016/07/01]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/06 Completed Completed

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