Terminal Evaluation of Enhancing Adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices in Uganda's Farming Systems

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Uganda
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
04/2016
Completion Date:
04/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

The Government of Uganda through the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries [MAAIF] with support from the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa [COMESA] and  United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] is implementing the project, "Enhancing adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture [CSA] practices in Uganda’s farming systems” which is specifically focused towards five districts, namely Bugiri, Busia, Budaka, Namutumba and Buyende.

This project is part of Uganda Government’s Strategic Investment Framework [SIF] on Sustainable Land Management [SLM]. The SLM SIF is within the framework of the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan [DSIP]. The SIF identified Climate Smart Agriculture [CSA] practices such as Conservation Agriculture [CA] as relevant, and underscored the need to address climate adaptation and mitigation measures in the agricultural sector to improve food security and minimize land degradation. Implementation arrangements also seek to contribute to objectives of the climate change National Adaptation Plan of Action [NAPA], which are within Agriculture Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan [DSIP].  The project intends to use lessons learnt to inform policy and strengthen decentralized governance mechanisms and institutions and practices that empower local governments and Civil Society Organizations [CSOs] in CSA and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

 

This project thus focuses on enhancing productivity of land through sustainable land management of soil and water resources, particularly integrating CSA as a climate change adaptation strategy to build climate change resilient societies. The intention is to promote CSA practices in five target districts, putting in place measures/systems to improve input supply, develop produce markets for economic sustainability for CSA enterprises; and supporting research activities to generate baselines, monitoring and evaluation guidelines and national recommendations on CSA technologies and practices.  From a broader perspective, the project will contribute to development of a national CSA strategy as contribution to the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme [CAADP] agenda, to the current Uganda National Development Plan [NDP] and the DSIP.

 

The Project Document [ProDoc] covering the period 2014-2015 was signed by Government, UNDP and COMESA in 2014, following pilot implementation of activities by MAAIF; and full project implementation began in July 2014.   The project was scheduled to end on 31 December 2015, but now has been granted three months no-cost extension.

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Title Terminal Evaluation of Enhancing Adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture Practices in Uganda's Farming Systems
Atlas Project Number: 00080345
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Uganda
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 04/2016
Planned End Date: 04/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 5.4. Preparedness systems in place to effectively address the consequences of and response to natural hazards (e.g. geo-physical and climate related) and man-made crisis at all levels of government and community
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 30,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dr. Chaudhry Inayatullah Team Leader ci@drinayat.com
Sarah Tibaidhukira Kayanga National consultant stock2consult@yahoo.co.uk UGANDA
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries
Countries: UGANDA
Comments:

Evaluation completed

Lessons
1.

Lesson 4.1. At the time of developing the project, the targets should be cautiously set to avoid any ambiguity. It is always better to have a baseline study at the project formulation stage.

 


2.

Lesson learned 4.2. In the last quarter of the project life, NARO should collect data against the indicators of CSA in the project district, which would partially serve as end-line survey as well as baseline for future scaling up. 

 

,

Lesson 4.3: In future projects, broaden the partnership by including the relevant ministries.

,

Lesson 4.4: Implementation through District Local Governments facilitates implementation, builds synergies and ensures some level of financial sustainability, and the practice should be continued.


Findings
1.

Regarding interventions contributing to the Development Objective: Contributing to the national target of having 250,000[1] hectares of land under conservation agriculture by 2016, and to develop the National CSA Strategy.

The project has been instrumental in training several hundred farmers and establishing demonstration plots on farmers’ fields and 30 schools. CSA has been demonstrated at 1,400 acres on farmers’ fields and primary schools. The mobility of farmers and extension workers has been enhanced by providing bicycles and motorcycles. 15 farmers’ groups have been established to access grants from donors; hundreds of ToTs have been trained to further impart training; capacity of district governments has been enhanced. The project is likely to be further up-scaled by the communities and schools by themselves and contribute towards developing CSA strategy, CAADP and Uganda National Development Plan.


 


2.

Outcome 1: Support scaling up of CSA practices in five districts of Uganda.:

The project has set up a good model of scaling up. The farmers and pupils in schools have become change agents and they are by themselves undertaking applied research trials.  Some school administration have reduced on the costs for feeding or are  no more collecting fee from parents for school feeding program.  Good example are: Buteba Baptist Primary School, Busia district and Bulange Teffe Primary school, Namutumba district, where CSA model is being replicated. In Busia district, Kanyoro, Buteba and  Amonikane Primary schools have also copied the CSA model  from Buteba Baptist Primary School. The yield of maize is at least 5-6 times higher in CSA plots and may increase with use of rippers. The additional earnings by farmers is being used for improving housing, installing solar power systems, buying of goats and boars and meeting the expenditures on health and education.


3.

Outcome 2: To put in place support measure/systems to improve input supply, produce markets and economic sustainability measures for climate smart agriculture enterprise.

 

The input supply and output sale has been much organized; the farmers’ groups place collective supply orders to the traders and are in a position to negotiate better market price for the produce. The farmers collect money for the purchase of inputs and send that to suppliers through mobile money, who in turn supply them the required items. Collective marketing system to promote CSA is well in place.


4.

Outcome 3: To support research activities to generate baselines [biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics], develop monitoring and evaluation guidelines and produce national recommendations on CSA technologies and practices.

 

Project has produced a very good baseline report and has produced several monitoring and evaluation reports whereby, highly informative reports of all the trainings held are available. Several exchange visits were organized and MAAIF was instrumental in monitoring the progress. CSA Monitoring system has been established and recommendations developed for the consideration of LDGs and MAAIF.


5.

Efficiency: was the project implemented in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

The project was implemented in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Inception meeting was held and procurement of inputs was through  UNDP competitive procurement system. In a short period of a few months, the project produced tangible results.


6.

Effectiveness: to what extent project objectives have been achieved.

The project has fully achieved its objectives. The project has put in place a system which could be scaled up with additional donor, government and community funds. It is highly likely that farmers and schools will continue to replicate CSA on their own.


7.

Monitoring and Evaluation:

The project has produced very informative M&E and back to office reports of every visit and reports of all the training events held. A monitoring and evaluation system for CSA has been developed which could be adopted by LDGs, MAAIF and farmers.


8.

Relevance: The project is highly relevant to the needs of target groups/categories [small or large holders] and has been highly taken on as an approach for adapting to climate change. It plays a significant role in enhancing food and nutrition security, building resilience to climate change and its effects as well as mitigating climate change. It is likely to be emulated in other parts of Uganda and region.


9.

Sustainability:

The project is sustainable from social, technical, institutional and environmental point of view. The CSA technologies/practices demonstrated have been accepted and adopted within the community in a short period of time. There is institutional support at national and local level as well as private sector. It is anticipated that farmers will continue to invest in purchase of high quality seeds as well as fertilizers and herbicides. The important input which is required is the supply of rippers [cost US $ 15 per ripper] and funds for construction of water reservoirs or for installing tubewells [diesel or animal powered] and solar tubewells. This may become a major constraint in future[1].

 


[1]


Recommendations
1

Evaluation Recommendation 1:    In the last quarter of the project life, NARO should collect data against the indicators of CSA in the project districts, which would partially serve as end-line survey as well as baseline for future scaling up. 

2

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2:    The project should in include community contribution in future as explained in detail in Section 7 to break up dependency syndrome and scale up area under CSA.

3

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3:   The project should interact with seed, fertilizer and herbicides / pesticides companies, and urge them to provide inputs to the participating farmers for establishing demo plots. The private sector companies always do that.

4

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:  It was learnt that in some schools, the gardens have given enough produce that now the school administration has stopped collecting fee from parents for school feeding program. Since it is an extremely good example of sustainability, it is recommended that the school administration should urge parents to contribute funds for the purchase of seeds and fertilizers to support CSA gardens in school. It will be a relatively less burden on parents, and they are likely to participate in this programme, as well as encourage their children to go to school.

5

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5:    The Ministry of Education should consider CSA as a major intervention, as has been demonstrated in 30+ schools. The pupils are serving as agents of change and they are convincing their parents to follow CSA. The Ministry should include CSA in curricula at all levels, and as a policy directive advise all the schools to establish CSA gardens in schools to supplement school feeding program, and provide funds for the supply of inputs.

6

MAAIF should immediately work with Meteorological Authority and arrange to provide agricultural forecasts to member farmers and schools through SMS alerts. It is more important for CSA project as farmers will be using costly seeds, and there need to be some insurance system to protect the interest of farmers.

7

The present project is a good case for scaling up. UNDP and MAAIF to formulate a new project for five years to promote CSA in Uganda. With additional support from COMESA, DFID, EU, USAID, private sector, etc., the project could be a regional project covering several neighboring countries.

1. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation 1:    In the last quarter of the project life, NARO should collect data against the indicators of CSA in the project districts, which would partially serve as end-line survey as well as baseline for future scaling up. 

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Management agrees and UNDP will coordinate with NARO / MAAIF to undertake study for collecting data against CSA indicators.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will coordinate with NARO / MAAIF to undertake study for collecting data against CSA indicators.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/03 No Longer Applicable Project closed.
2. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2:    The project should in include community contribution in future as explained in detail in Section 7 to break up dependency syndrome and scale up area under CSA.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
During the last quarter of project life, if planting seasons allows, the project team will initiate dialogue with the participating farmers to practice CSA on one acre at their own while the project will provide inputs for one acre free of cost.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
â?¢ Program Coordinator / Technical Advisor 2016/03 Completed Activity completed
3. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3:   The project should interact with seed, fertilizer and herbicides / pesticides companies, and urge them to provide inputs to the participating farmers for establishing demo plots. The private sector companies always do that.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project team, Extension Officers and Farmersâ?? Groups will interact with the suppliers of inputs to provide their best quality inputs for setting up demonstration plots in their area at most frequently visited sites, such as roads, churches, schools, etc.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
Team Leader Climate change Resilience and disaster risk management 2020/01 Overdue-Initiated The initiatives have been adopted in the new programme 2016-2020
4. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:  It was learnt that in some schools, the gardens have given enough produce that now the school administration has stopped collecting fee from parents for school feeding program. Since it is an extremely good example of sustainability, it is recommended that the school administration should urge parents to contribute funds for the purchase of seeds and fertilizers to support CSA gardens in school. It will be a relatively less burden on parents, and they are likely to participate in this programme, as well as encourage their children to go to school.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project team to interact with participating schools to reduce fee for school feeding program, and spend the remainder fee to promote CSA in schools and make the school feeding program self-sustainable, and more attractive for parents and children.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
â?¢ Project Coordinator / Technical Advisor / Extension Officers 2020/12 Initiated The intervention has been incorporated in the new programme 2016-2020
5. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5:    The Ministry of Education should consider CSA as a major intervention, as has been demonstrated in 30+ schools. The pupils are serving as agents of change and they are convincing their parents to follow CSA. The Ministry should include CSA in curricula at all levels, and as a policy directive advise all the schools to establish CSA gardens in schools to supplement school feeding program, and provide funds for the supply of inputs.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP to provide assistance to the Ministry of Education for developing curricular on CSA
[Added: 2016/06/29]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2020/12 Initiated This is an on-going activity and has already been kick started
6. Recommendation:

MAAIF should immediately work with Meteorological Authority and arrange to provide agricultural forecasts to member farmers and schools through SMS alerts. It is more important for CSA project as farmers will be using costly seeds, and there need to be some insurance system to protect the interest of farmers.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Work with Meteorological Authority to provide agricultural forecasts on daily basis.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/02 Completed UNDP supported the establishment of NECOC National Emergency Coordination Centre (NECOC). which provides information to target communities
7. Recommendation:

The present project is a good case for scaling up. UNDP and MAAIF to formulate a new project for five years to promote CSA in Uganda. With additional support from COMESA, DFID, EU, USAID, private sector, etc., the project could be a regional project covering several neighboring countries.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/06/29]

Agree

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP RC should take a lead to have a UN Joint Programme on CSA upscaling in Uganda and the region.
[Added: 2016/06/29]
UNDP Energy and Environment Unit 2016/02 Completed New programme 2016-2020 is now in place and includes aspects of CSA scale-up. other projects are also replicating CSA good practices. These include: Climate Change Risk and disaster risk reduction programme; Karamoja Food Security Project scale-up; Integrated landscape management for improved livelihood and ecosystem resilience in Mount Elgon

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