Final Evaluation of the project Eco-system based adaptation

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Mongolia
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
02/2018
Completion Date:
02/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
45,000

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Title Final Evaluation of the project Eco-system based adaptation
Atlas Project Number: 00062394
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Mongolia
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 02/2018
Planned End Date: 02/2018
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  • Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
SDG Target
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
  • 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
Evaluation Budget(US $): 45,000
Source of Funding: project budget
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 43,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Arun Rijal Dr. arunrijal@yahoo.com
Narangerel Yansanjav nyansanjav@yahoo.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: MONGOLIA
Lessons
1.

Lessons Learned

  1. Community organisations lack scientific knowledge and are ill-equipped for handling such projects so support to enhance their knowledge and strengthen their capacity will help to encourage them to continue in adapting risk of climate change or desertification and there by facilitate a cooperative approach for reducing damage from land degradation Lack of knowledge has been seen as a drawback in many projects limiting communities from taking precaution. Similarly, lack of knowledge, literacy and lack of capacity affect their ability to manage risk. Awareness generation on risk of climate change and its potential impacts, available adaptation measures and availability of appropriate technology helps to reduce damage. Moreover, linking them with weather monitoring to minimise risk related to weather. Increased economic benefits from sustainable agriculture practices and other income generation activities encourage communities to conserve their resources.
  2. Local adaptation knowledge is easily adapted by the rural communities. Local knowledge should be promoted together with scientific knowledge to respond to local situation as they are more easily adapted by the rural communities. Local communities were good in identifying signs of land degradation, climate change impact and proposing suitable and feasible mitigation measures. One example observed in project areas was that local community’s knowledge regarding constructing dry well and snow water harvest to address prolonged dry season and linking this with resolving pasture and agriculture land issues.
  3. The farmer exchange visits promoted farmer to farmer learning and technology transfer from one community to another. This is the best way for transferring technology to farmers as farmers could explain by simplifying the technical terms more appropriately to another farmer making learning more effective.
  4. Working directly through existing government structures brings dividends. The project chose to work directly with the Ministry of Environment and Tourism and local governments, rather than setting up parallel implementation structures. This decision has proved very successful not only in empowering government by providing experience and training, but also in developing effective government “ownership”, engagement, participation and motivation, thereby promoting long-term sustainability of the project’s achievements.
  5. Designing a project linking various institutions from grassroots level institutions, government agencies, local authorities and communities generates huge benefits for sustainability, and through the synergies developed provides the intervention with much greater effectiveness than that which can be achieved by stand-alone projects. The project chose to work with various institutions at different levels and local communities. This helped in empowering these institutions by providing experience, training and equipping in a well-funded and well-equipped environment and also in developing effective “ownership”, engagement, participation and motivation, thereby promoting long-term sustainability of the project’s achievements at community levels. It also helped to generate local guardianship (from community organisations or groups, local authorities and National Government’s relevant sectors) that made project implementation efficient and effective.
  6. Community participation in the project design, formulation of implementation modality, implementation and monitoring is very important. This will help to implement projects effectively and also make activities sustainable. In this project, the inclusion of local communities, through the small grants approach helped local communities to identify environmental issues that need to be addressed and enabled them to innovate a wide range of adaptation measures and livelihood improvement strategies.
  7. Local communities understand causes of pastureland degradation and environmental problems but due to lack of livelihood alternatives they are forced to continue unsustainable practices so if project designs consider alternatives for betterment of livelihood by improving their practices then locals will cooperate. The local communities understand and appreciate that the livelihood activities like coal and wood burning, overgrazing and poor water and soil management accelerate environmental degradation. They also showed willingness to change their practices if they are provided with alternative environmentally sound practices like water efficient agriculture and bio-briquette which support their livelihoods.
  8. Constant contacts with communities are vital to community-based water and land degradation risk management projects. Good communication and regular communication in relation to project activities with the communities helps to promote successful, community-based projects as they built trust and motivation of the targeted local communities. To achieve this, the quality and commitment of those employed at the sites are key attributes of a project. This project has been benefited from efficient site coordinators and technical staff. But what the evaluation team believes to be the most important factor is the almost constant contact that they have had with the communities throughout the project’s lifetime. This frequency of contact has undoubtedly enabled the project to build high levels of trust, capacity, and motivation which in turn has facilitated the change in people's mind-sets and behaviours and brought about the success of the EbA schemes. The role of the National Project coordinator is very vital in motivating field staffs.
  9. High participation of women in groups and forming women’s groups will assure more success.Women were found more serious in EbA activities. It was observed that the groups with more women and women groups were more efficient in implementation and functioning and able to generate expected results. This also helped to generate leadership and develop decision making authority among them and also increased income through income generating activities (handicrafts making, sustainable and water efficient agriculture, livestock, cottage industry etc., also see outputs) improving their livelihoods. Women were found to be more engaged in EbA activities. This could be because they are the one who most interact with natural resources through activities like water collection, livestock grazing, cooking and working in agriculture field. The community groups with domination of women and women’s group were most successfully implementing project activities and able to achieve desired results.

Findings
Recommendations
1

Recommendation 1: Corrective actions for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project

  1. The project provided support to rural schools to establish rain water harvest. But most of the water running from the roof was dropping down due to low height of the collecting canal. Similarly, to store collected water only one drum was available. School had big roof and that could help to collect large quantity of water and for that they need bigger reservoir. Also, the height of the canal on which water from the roof drop need to be height then the edge of the roof.
  2. The project target areas have a large number of livestock which supply large amounts of dung. The dung could be used for bio-briquette production. Project supported only one bio-briquette. Briquette production program could be supported in all areas of these soum to decrease pressure on wood for energy.
  3. Solar technology was used for meteorology activities, food drying, water pumping and heating. Out of 23 well only 5 were equipped with solar pump and few household heating piloted using solar technology so using these experiences future replication should give more priority to solar technology. Use of solar generator reduce cost of fossil fuel. Introducing solar generator and training locals on maintenance of them will reduce cost for irrigation and also provide income generation opportunity by repairing generators.
  4. Snow water collection and rain water collection canals are not cemented so water loss from seepage is high. Such canals should be made concrete using locally available stones and pebble.
  5. In some areas, within 100m distance from the irrigation canal, farmers were irrigating agriculture field by pumping water using fossil fuel. Extension of irrigation canal in such areas could help to improve agriculture and also reduce farmers farming cost by reducing cost of fossil fuel.
2

Recommendation 2: Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

 

VI. The project developed integrated river basin management guidelines and also proposed two protected areas. These are approved by the local government and also approved by ministry. Follow up should be made to approve it from cabinet and thereafter by parliament.

3

Recommendation 3: Proposals for future directions underlying main objectives

VI.      It is recommended to upscale and replicate lessons learned from this project by UNDP, Government of Mongolia and other agencies working in similar issues. There could be many potential donors willing to invest in such activities, so it is also recommended that lessons learned should be disseminated to a large audience including other areas of the water basin and beyond. UNDP and AF could use its network for dissemination.

4

Recommendation 4: Proposals for future directions underlying main objectives

VII. It is recommended to promote insurance mechanism in pastoralism and agriculture to safeguard farmers. Due to climate change weather became very unpredictable. If farmers whose economy is not so strong have to take risk of climate change then their situation will further worsened. Hence to encourage farming and pastoralism, insurance mechanisms should be promoted. Considering the economic situation of the farmers, premium of such insurance should not be high or be subsidised.

1. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1: Corrective actions for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project

  1. The project provided support to rural schools to establish rain water harvest. But most of the water running from the roof was dropping down due to low height of the collecting canal. Similarly, to store collected water only one drum was available. School had big roof and that could help to collect large quantity of water and for that they need bigger reservoir. Also, the height of the canal on which water from the roof drop need to be height then the edge of the roof.
  2. The project target areas have a large number of livestock which supply large amounts of dung. The dung could be used for bio-briquette production. Project supported only one bio-briquette. Briquette production program could be supported in all areas of these soum to decrease pressure on wood for energy.
  3. Solar technology was used for meteorology activities, food drying, water pumping and heating. Out of 23 well only 5 were equipped with solar pump and few household heating piloted using solar technology so using these experiences future replication should give more priority to solar technology. Use of solar generator reduce cost of fossil fuel. Introducing solar generator and training locals on maintenance of them will reduce cost for irrigation and also provide income generation opportunity by repairing generators.
  4. Snow water collection and rain water collection canals are not cemented so water loss from seepage is high. Such canals should be made concrete using locally available stones and pebble.
  5. In some areas, within 100m distance from the irrigation canal, farmers were irrigating agriculture field by pumping water using fossil fuel. Extension of irrigation canal in such areas could help to improve agriculture and also reduce farmers farming cost by reducing cost of fossil fuel.
Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/01] [Last Updated: 2018/11/01]

This recommendation is partially accepted. Some of these recommendations are specific to the beneficiary or the area. With the closure of the project, there is no fund available for such detailed and extended activities suggested. However, the recommendations related to the small scale-fixing of the roof and cementing the rain water collection canals were suggested to the beneficiaries. The recommendation related to the briquette production program in all areas of the soum is not supported as it is not in line with the project/programme overall focus, therefore no funding earmarked.  

For programming purpose, the recommendations are taken in general terms to be applied throughout the programme when similar activities are planned for relevant component.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The lessons learnt and recommendations are disseminated in the programme for consideration and integration into the similar project/programme components.
[Added: 2018/11/01]
CO M&E officer 2018/11 Completed
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2: Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

 

VI. The project developed integrated river basin management guidelines and also proposed two protected areas. These are approved by the local government and also approved by ministry. Follow up should be made to approve it from cabinet and thereafter by parliament.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/01]

Recommendation partially supported.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Consultation with NDP, Mr. Battulga and hand over the follow-up action as part of the Exit Strategy to the Division of River Basin Management, MET
[Added: 2018/11/01]
NPC 2017/12 Completed Consultation done and the exit strategy approved and accepted. Current status: Steering committee was established to develop a comprehensive regulation on the integrated water resources management at the MET. Draft document completed and submitted for the discussion of Minister’s Council. History
3. Recommendation:

Recommendation 3: Proposals for future directions underlying main objectives

VI.      It is recommended to upscale and replicate lessons learned from this project by UNDP, Government of Mongolia and other agencies working in similar issues. There could be many potential donors willing to invest in such activities, so it is also recommended that lessons learned should be disseminated to a large audience including other areas of the water basin and beyond. UNDP and AF could use its network for dissemination.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/01]

Lessons learned from the project was widely disseminated through several publications and advocacy materials. Another event to disseminate the lessons learned is the project’s closing workshop. Potential donor funding is sought and a soft pipeline project (EBA Phase II) is under formulation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Lessons learned to be discussed and raised among different stakeholders during the Closing Workshop.
[Added: 2018/11/01]
NPC 2017/12 Completed Closing workshop was organized on 8th December, 2017
4. Recommendation:

Recommendation 4: Proposals for future directions underlying main objectives

VII. It is recommended to promote insurance mechanism in pastoralism and agriculture to safeguard farmers. Due to climate change weather became very unpredictable. If farmers whose economy is not so strong have to take risk of climate change then their situation will further worsened. Hence to encourage farming and pastoralism, insurance mechanisms should be promoted. Considering the economic situation of the farmers, premium of such insurance should not be high or be subsidised.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/01]

Recommendations will be considered in formulation of the new programming documents such as GCF and/or EBA II.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Recommendation will be reflected in the GCF proposal.
[Added: 2018/11/01]
UNDP CO 2018/09 Completed The proposal includes a review of current livestock policy and related public/private programmes (e.g. dzud relief programmes, insurance schemes, etc.)

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