UN MOZAMBIQUE 2017-2021 UNDAF EVALUATION

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Mozambique
Evaluation Type:
UNDAF
Planned End Date:
12/2020
Completion Date:
03/2021
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
No
Evaluation Budget(US $):
1,447,550,794

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Title UN MOZAMBIQUE 2017-2021 UNDAF EVALUATION
Atlas Project Number: 00100673,00063829,00063225,00063619,00063617
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Mozambique
Evaluation Type: UNDAF
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2021
Planned End Date: 12/2020
Management Response: No
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
  • 2. Resilience
  • 3. Sustainable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.1.1 Capacities developed across the whole of government to integrate the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement and other international agreements in development plans and budgets, and to analyse progress towards the SDGs, using innovative and data-driven solutions
  • 2. Output 1.3.1 National capacities and evidence-based assessment and planning tools enable gender-responsive and risk-informed development investments, including for response to and recovery from crisis
  • 3. Output 2.2.2 Constitution-making, electoral and parliamentary processes and institutions strengthened to promote inclusion, transparency and accountability
  • 4. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
SDG Goal
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG Target
  • 1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
  • 12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
  • 15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
  • 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
  • 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
  • 5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
Evaluation Budget(US $): 1,447,550,794
Source of Funding: UNDP Regular Resources
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 825,027,044
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with UN Agencies
  • Joint with UNCT
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Cristina
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: MINEC, MEF, MITADER, INGC, MoJ, MIREME, CNCS
Countries: MOZAMBIQUE
Lessons
1.

In order to extract good practices, success an replicable stories and experiences as well as what should be avoided in the next UNDAF, the main highlights from the evaluation at this stage of the implementation of the UNDAF are summarised as follows.  

?    The work for emergencies further signalled the necessity for decentralised presence and work in the whole territory;
?    The number of Outcomes set is too ambitious and may result in duplications and added efforts to manage and implement activities;
?    Programmes such as the UNDAF and how they are drafted do not anticipate events such as the extensive humanitarian crisis that the country has faced in recent years (cyclones, insurgence, violence and displacement) or the COVID19 pandemic;
?    It is possible to adapt flexibly to fast changing contexts and, at the same time, maintain continued normative work;
?    The UN in Mozambique can be mobilised by partners as a channel for the implementation of resources allocated to development work; it is seen as valuable actor for development, especially in issues such as the fight against Malaria, HIV-AIDS, and now COVID19 response.


Findings
1.

Through the UNDAF, the UNCT Mozambique collectively prioritised activities based on the country needs, national priorities and the SDGs (see Table 2 and Table 3). The UNDAF was drafted with the involvement and participation of all agencies and the government in the process, therefore bringing to the preparatory discussions the various perspectives into one vision. The UNDAF is aligned principally to both the Mozambican government development priorities and the SDGs, while also a human rights-based approach and gender equality pervade the design and logic of the document. This is highlighted in the UNDAF document that states that it gives primacy to national development goals but simultaneously frames interventions and development work within the context of wider global commitments, goals, targets, and standards, namely those anchored in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Although the 2017-2020 UNDAF was prepared practically at the same time as the SDGs were being prepared/officially adopted, it has not been drafted fully aligned to them. Government partners in particular consider that the resources allocated to projects and activities were not sufficient in face of the enormous needs of the country and there are expectations of more operational activities from the UN. While UN’s vocation and added value is emphasised in the UNDAF as supportive of capacity building and at the normative level, the importance of the work in the country is recognised by government partners. The UN is seen by the government of Mozambique as a relevant partners namely for its neutral position, which in sensitive areas like elections is considered crucial to avoid the influence of external interests. The STAE, for example, receives support from the UN jointly with other donors (EU countries, the Embassy of Canada, Finland, Norway and UK) but the funding from the UN is considered free from bilateral political influence.   
The UNDAF has developed an approach to development based on assumptions linking the context and needs of the country and action to be taken. The overarching chain of results foreseen lies in a vision that a culturally sensitive and gender responsive, human-rights based approach that explicitly focusses on the most vulnerable groups aiming at equity is the main driver of human development and a means to break the inter-generational cycle of multi-dimensional poverty. 

By aligning to country needs and priorities, the UNDAF aimed at responding to the ones identified by the time the document was being drafted, one year before the 2017-2020 timeframe. However, the Mozambican context registered rapid changes – especially humanitarian, economic and political, with direct negative effect in the lives of people, which rapidly made the document unfit. To deal with this fact, the UN has reallocated resources according to the collective priorities if necessary. In 2017, the UN provided response to Cyclone Dineo; in 2019, to cyclones Idai and Kenneth; in 2020 to the COVID19 pandemic. Activities to respond to the refugee needs in the Cabo Delgado province are also increasing to respond to the escalating violence. While humanitarian questions were practically out of the UNDAF, except for work in the area of disaster and risk management, and the ‘move’ from development to emergency is not the one foreseen or desired by the UN for the country programme. More than half of the resources planned for development were detoured to emergencies over the period of the UNDAF.  
Despite the response to unforeseen emergencies, the UNDAF has continued, however, to focus on the important areas and issues for the development of Mozambique that have been jointly identified with the government. Key issues such as the creation of, for instance, a specialised unit within the SERNIC to deal with gender-based violence; support to the elections in 2018 and 2019, support to the Census in 2017 or the cash-transfers social protection programme highlight how the UN in Mozambique responded to the central needs for development. The fight against HIV-AIDS, for instance, is a crucial area for development support in the region and the UN has been devoting substantial efforts in this work. In addition, sectors like the digitalisation of state services, including complex processes like the electoral system, or platforms such as the Digital Municipal Market Place, the University application platform, developed by the UEM are examples of relevant key areas for the development of Mozambique, which are supported by the UNCT. Digitalisation of the database of the SERNIC for criminal processes is another example of crucial areas for development supported by the UNDP or the foreseen support to forensic laboratories, which are not working. UNDP, for instance, also supported the construction of offices to support victims of violence in all province capitals and in a number of districts, which did not exist. Moreover, the combination of a variety of activities for the same purpose and targeting common issues is also a good example of what the UNDAF tried to address. For example, the training of the police in coordination with the electoral bodies and work with the Supreme Court on electoral tribunals, proved to be relevant and targeted at the needs of the Mozambican institutions to conduct the national elections. 

The human rights-based approach and gender equality as well as the other programming principles were used to design the programme and make it more relevant. Strategic meetings with government counterparts and representatives of civil society, including the private sector, as well as international development partners accompanied each phase of the planning process and the process included joint training on programming principles, which ensured that the human rights based approach and the importance of gender and cultural sensitivity were understood by all stakeholders in the process. In terms of the Outcomes, they all have a reference to vulnerable groups and/or inequalities.


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