UN MOZAMBIQUE 2017-2021 UNDAF EVALUATION

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Mozambique
Evaluation Type:
UNDAF
Planned End Date:
12/2020
Completion Date:
03/2021
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
50,000

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Title UN MOZAMBIQUE 2017-2021 UNDAF EVALUATION
Atlas Project Number: 00100673,00063829,00063225,00063619,00063617
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Mozambique
Evaluation Type: UNDAF
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2021
Planned End Date: 12/2020
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Governance
  • 2. Resilience
  • 3. Sustainable
  • 4. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.1.1 Capacities developed across the whole of government to integrate the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement and other international agreements in development plans and budgets, and to analyse progress towards the SDGs, using innovative and data-driven solutions
  • 2. Output 1.3.1 National capacities and evidence-based assessment and planning tools enable gender-responsive and risk-informed development investments, including for response to and recovery from crisis
  • 3. Output 2.2.2 Constitution-making, electoral and parliamentary processes and institutions strengthened to promote inclusion, transparency and accountability
  • 4. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
SDG Goal
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG Target
  • 1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
  • 12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
  • 15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
  • 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
  • 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
  • 5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
Evaluation Budget(US $): 50,000
Source of Funding: UNDP Regular Resources
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 56,400
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with UN Agencies
  • Joint with UNCT
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Cristina
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: MINEC, MEF, MITADER, INGC, MoJ, MIREME, CNCS
Countries: MOZAMBIQUE
Lessons
1.

In order to extract good practices, success an replicable stories and experiences as well as what should be avoided in the next UNDAF, the main highlights from the evaluation at this stage of the implementation of the UNDAF are summarised as follows.  

?    The work for emergencies further signalled the necessity for decentralised presence and work in the whole territory;
?    The number of Outcomes set is too ambitious and may result in duplications and added efforts to manage and implement activities;
?    Programmes such as the UNDAF and how they are drafted do not anticipate events such as the extensive humanitarian crisis that the country has faced in recent years (cyclones, insurgence, violence and displacement) or the COVID19 pandemic;
?    It is possible to adapt flexibly to fast changing contexts and, at the same time, maintain continued normative work;
?    The UN in Mozambique can be mobilised by partners as a channel for the implementation of resources allocated to development work; it is seen as valuable actor for development, especially in issues such as the fight against Malaria, HIV-AIDS, and now COVID19 response.


Findings
1.

Through the UNDAF, the UNCT Mozambique collectively prioritised activities based on the country needs, national priorities and the SDGs (see Table 2 and Table 3). The UNDAF was drafted with the involvement and participation of all agencies and the government in the process, therefore bringing to the preparatory discussions the various perspectives into one vision. The UNDAF is aligned principally to both the Mozambican government development priorities and the SDGs, while also a human rights-based approach and gender equality pervade the design and logic of the document. This is highlighted in the UNDAF document that states that it gives primacy to national development goals but simultaneously frames interventions and development work within the context of wider global commitments, goals, targets, and standards, namely those anchored in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Although the 2017-2020 UNDAF was prepared practically at the same time as the SDGs were being prepared/officially adopted, it has not been drafted fully aligned to them. Government partners in particular consider that the resources allocated to projects and activities were not sufficient in face of the enormous needs of the country and there are expectations of more operational activities from the UN. While UN’s vocation and added value is emphasised in the UNDAF as supportive of capacity building and at the normative level, the importance of the work in the country is recognised by government partners. The UN is seen by the government of Mozambique as a relevant partners namely for its neutral position, which in sensitive areas like elections is considered crucial to avoid the influence of external interests. The STAE, for example, receives support from the UN jointly with other donors (EU countries, the Embassy of Canada, Finland, Norway and UK) but the funding from the UN is considered free from bilateral political influence.   
The UNDAF has developed an approach to development based on assumptions linking the context and needs of the country and action to be taken. The overarching chain of results foreseen lies in a vision that a culturally sensitive and gender responsive, human-rights based approach that explicitly focusses on the most vulnerable groups aiming at equity is the main driver of human development and a means to break the inter-generational cycle of multi-dimensional poverty. 

By aligning to country needs and priorities, the UNDAF aimed at responding to the ones identified by the time the document was being drafted, one year before the 2017-2020 timeframe. However, the Mozambican context registered rapid changes – especially humanitarian, economic and political, with direct negative effect in the lives of people, which rapidly made the document unfit. To deal with this fact, the UN has reallocated resources according to the collective priorities if necessary. In 2017, the UN provided response to Cyclone Dineo; in 2019, to cyclones Idai and Kenneth; in 2020 to the COVID19 pandemic. Activities to respond to the refugee needs in the Cabo Delgado province are also increasing to respond to the escalating violence. While humanitarian questions were practically out of the UNDAF, except for work in the area of disaster and risk management, and the ‘move’ from development to emergency is not the one foreseen or desired by the UN for the country programme. More than half of the resources planned for development were detoured to emergencies over the period of the UNDAF.  
Despite the response to unforeseen emergencies, the UNDAF has continued, however, to focus on the important areas and issues for the development of Mozambique that have been jointly identified with the government. Key issues such as the creation of, for instance, a specialised unit within the SERNIC to deal with gender-based violence; support to the elections in 2018 and 2019, support to the Census in 2017 or the cash-transfers social protection programme highlight how the UN in Mozambique responded to the central needs for development. The fight against HIV-AIDS, for instance, is a crucial area for development support in the region and the UN has been devoting substantial efforts in this work. In addition, sectors like the digitalisation of state services, including complex processes like the electoral system, or platforms such as the Digital Municipal Market Place, the University application platform, developed by the UEM are examples of relevant key areas for the development of Mozambique, which are supported by the UNCT. Digitalisation of the database of the SERNIC for criminal processes is another example of crucial areas for development supported by the UNDP or the foreseen support to forensic laboratories, which are not working. UNDP, for instance, also supported the construction of offices to support victims of violence in all province capitals and in a number of districts, which did not exist. Moreover, the combination of a variety of activities for the same purpose and targeting common issues is also a good example of what the UNDAF tried to address. For example, the training of the police in coordination with the electoral bodies and work with the Supreme Court on electoral tribunals, proved to be relevant and targeted at the needs of the Mozambican institutions to conduct the national elections. 

The human rights-based approach and gender equality as well as the other programming principles were used to design the programme and make it more relevant. Strategic meetings with government counterparts and representatives of civil society, including the private sector, as well as international development partners accompanied each phase of the planning process and the process included joint training on programming principles, which ensured that the human rights based approach and the importance of gender and cultural sensitivity were understood by all stakeholders in the process. In terms of the Outcomes, they all have a reference to vulnerable groups and/or inequalities.


Recommendations
1

Review reassessed government priorities and address new needs, namely to allow flexibility in contexts of emergencies.

2

2. Build from programmes with good results and where the UN brings added-value. These include not only the gender equity and human rights-based approaches but also those targeting the youth and expand them to more comprehensive work in the area of employment, new technologies and capacity building. The later are crucial for related areas such as income, conflict prevention, or digital inclusion, for instance. The World Bank and the European Union in Mozambique are also aligning to this perspective and the government has defined new leaderships in these areas.

3

3. The UNSDCF needs to make the SDGs more evident and at the same time concentrate the Outcomes in fewer areas. 

4

To allow increased and improved flexibility, the UNSDCF will have to anticipate the main risks and trends at the economic and political levels. Concentrating the Outcomes and aligning to the SDGs should be done simultaneously with a clear allocation of resources to emergency and crises. The UN may also anticipate some extra funding for disasters and emergencies, like in the last years, but needs to acknowledge that some donors will most likely go back to the budget support option. Moreover, increased flexibility calls for more decentralised work to attend the humanitarian issues more efficiently; and to attend other issues as well, such as criminal investigations or the development of online state services.

5

Here too, the next UNSDCF will have to be more flexible to absorb (foreseen) new changes in the context of Mozambique. In the one hand, this calls for more decentralised work to attend the humanitarian issues more efficiently, in the provinces where natural disasters are more frequent or in those affected by violence and insecurity. Correlatively, the UNINFO system needs to improve further to accommodate geographic attribution of results as activities expand to more varied provinces.

6

The joint work of the UNCT requires improvements in systems and procedures, as well as in terms of the human resources available. There is a need to continuously improve the systematic use and updating of the UNINFO system for improved planning, implementation and monitoring. Joint work, like monitoring and evaluation visits, namely those together with the government, require better preparation to ensure that both M&E work and advocacy are hand in hand. The process of drafting the UNSDCF, while considered quite participatory, needs to absorb less resources and time from the participants. There is also an opportunity to strengthen the joint resource mobilisation approach in place further. Another recommendation is to ensure that there is enough staff at agency level and at the UNCT together to implement the activities across the joint programmes. Finally, the UNCT needs to improve efficiency in general to deliver the UNDAF, namely in what concerns disbursements or supporting implementing partners for more efficient reporting. UN needs to continue to improve further mechanisms that will allow for a more speedy disbursement of funds, therefore enabling the smooth implementation of interventions.

7

The combination of emergency work with a continued focus on UN’s strategic areas is desired.  

8

The UN needs to strategize sustainability more clearly in the next UNSDCF. The next framework should build from good experiences that already proved to be sustainable and take in consideration recurrent and long-term needs. In one hand, programmes with good results like those targeting the youth should be expanded to more comprehensive work in the area of employment or new technologies/digitalisation. On the other, foresee the needs to support projects that have a longer-term continuation, like the elections or the Census. The continued focus on UN key areas for development, especially the SDG, not losing sight of normative work and capacity building, are also the recommendations for improved sustainability. Some activities need to be reassessed, for instance, trainings need to be designed in a way to avoid frequent re-trainings and trainers of trainers can be called to share their expertise with their peers within government institutions. Finally, the next UNSDCF should explore the possibilities of adding sustainability to emergency activities.

9

The preparation of the new UNSDCF should take momentum from the good practices developed for emergency work. These can be mobilised for planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation. The UNCT should continue to use the preparation of the UNDAF to stimulate communication, although not losing sight of the need to be swifter in this process. Moreover, the UNCT has to assure that task groups – Outcome, Joint Programmes, etc. – are active and do not overlap each other or demand additional efforts for meetings, communication, reporting, etc.

10

Agency and joint participation in multi-stakeholders thematic and task groups should continue, as well as more collaboration with government. The programme can absorb lessons from joint work/project implementation and use it to plan and revise the work with other development partners in the country. The work with the Government of Mozambique should be constantly aware of the need to improve the visibility of the UNSDCF alignment to government priorities, assuring that all or almost all government priorities are integrated in the framework. In order to foster improved coherence with the government priorities, the UNSDCF should improve the joint work with different ministries at planning, implementation and monitoring stages – the Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Plan and Ministry of Foreign Affairs – to assure efficiently shared communication and information and alignment.

11
Until the end of the current UNDAF, the UNCT will have to monitor and closely follow-up the results still to be achieved.
Management Response Documents
1. Recommendation:

Review reassessed government priorities and address new needs, namely to allow flexibility in contexts of emergencies.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation is accepted. It will be important for next UNSDCF to clearly recognise problems like corruption and assure that emergencies are clearly considered in the design, most particularly the conflict in Cabo Delgado, which will require UN’s political involvement at higher level and peacebuilding and counterterrorism instances too; and the expected prolonged Covid19 crisis. UN will be adjusting the timing of the UNDAF planning with the government’s annual plan so as to integrate government priorities and fostering therefore more ownership from the government.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
CF formulation process to be conducted in consultation with the Government and CSOs and aligned to the governments annual plans (PQG 2020-2024), policies and strategies (ENDE 2015-2035).
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT/PMT 2021/11 Completed
2. Recommendation:

2. Build from programmes with good results and where the UN brings added-value. These include not only the gender equity and human rights-based approaches but also those targeting the youth and expand them to more comprehensive work in the area of employment, new technologies and capacity building. The later are crucial for related areas such as income, conflict prevention, or digital inclusion, for instance. The World Bank and the European Union in Mozambique are also aligning to this perspective and the government has defined new leaderships in these areas.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted and actipns prepared to address the reccommendation

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The UNCT configuration process to take into consideration the UN added-value and how non resident agencies (ITC, UNCTAD, UNEP, UNECA) can also contribute to the CF.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT 2021/12 Completed
Two new agencies became part of the Mozambican UNCT: UNOPS and UNECA.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT 2021/12 Completed
3. Recommendation:

3. The UNSDCF needs to make the SDGs more evident and at the same time concentrate the Outcomes in fewer areas. 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted. UNSDCF will have a more focused scope of intervention areas, demanding less efforts of coordination. This is likely to foster more involvement on the part of the agencies in Mozambique and signal reduced dispersion of efforts.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Only 1 outcome identified for each of the 4 SP areas. The outcomes were specifically designed to be cross-sectoral to create synergies between the SDGs targets.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
SP Leads/RCO 2021/12 Completed
4. Recommendation:

To allow increased and improved flexibility, the UNSDCF will have to anticipate the main risks and trends at the economic and political levels. Concentrating the Outcomes and aligning to the SDGs should be done simultaneously with a clear allocation of resources to emergency and crises. The UN may also anticipate some extra funding for disasters and emergencies, like in the last years, but needs to acknowledge that some donors will most likely go back to the budget support option. Moreover, increased flexibility calls for more decentralised work to attend the humanitarian issues more efficiently; and to attend other issues as well, such as criminal investigations or the development of online state services.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10] [Last Updated: 2021/12/10]

Reccommensation accepted 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The UNSDCF design brings programmatic flexibility to respond to risks and crisis and the RC in coordination with the UNCT conduct programme criticality assessments (PCA). The last PCA was conducted in June 2021.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
RCO 2021/12 Completed
5. Recommendation:

Here too, the next UNSDCF will have to be more flexible to absorb (foreseen) new changes in the context of Mozambique. In the one hand, this calls for more decentralised work to attend the humanitarian issues more efficiently, in the provinces where natural disasters are more frequent or in those affected by violence and insecurity. Correlatively, the UNINFO system needs to improve further to accommodate geographic attribution of results as activities expand to more varied provinces.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted and key actions identified 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The 4 pillars identified are very aligned with the forseaable environmental, socio-economic and political changes and challenges in the Mozambican context namely, human development, economic diversification, climate resilience and sustainable use of natural resources, and peacebuilding and human rights.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
SP Leads/RCO 2021/11 Completed
6. Recommendation:

The joint work of the UNCT requires improvements in systems and procedures, as well as in terms of the human resources available. There is a need to continuously improve the systematic use and updating of the UNINFO system for improved planning, implementation and monitoring. Joint work, like monitoring and evaluation visits, namely those together with the government, require better preparation to ensure that both M&E work and advocacy are hand in hand. The process of drafting the UNSDCF, while considered quite participatory, needs to absorb less resources and time from the participants. There is also an opportunity to strengthen the joint resource mobilisation approach in place further. Another recommendation is to ensure that there is enough staff at agency level and at the UNCT together to implement the activities across the joint programmes. Finally, the UNCT needs to improve efficiency in general to deliver the UNDAF, namely in what concerns disbursements or supporting implementing partners for more efficient reporting. UN needs to continue to improve further mechanisms that will allow for a more speedy disbursement of funds, therefore enabling the smooth implementation of interventions.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted and key actions identified 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
On an annual or bi-annual basis, all agencies involved in each of the SP areas are to prepare joint workplans in coordination with partners and in consideration with the CF outcomes, outputs, targets and indicators.
[Added: 2021/12/10] [Last Updated: 2021/12/13]
SP Leads 2022/12 Initiated History
7. Recommendation:

The combination of emergency work with a continued focus on UN’s strategic areas is desired.  

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Both short and long-term impact activities to be prepared for the next UNSDCF, as the framework needs to anticipate the prevalence of issues such as consequences of the Covid19 pandemic and of the armed conflict in Cabo Delgado.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT 2022/12 Initiated
8. Recommendation:

The UN needs to strategize sustainability more clearly in the next UNSDCF. The next framework should build from good experiences that already proved to be sustainable and take in consideration recurrent and long-term needs. In one hand, programmes with good results like those targeting the youth should be expanded to more comprehensive work in the area of employment or new technologies/digitalisation. On the other, foresee the needs to support projects that have a longer-term continuation, like the elections or the Census. The continued focus on UN key areas for development, especially the SDG, not losing sight of normative work and capacity building, are also the recommendations for improved sustainability. Some activities need to be reassessed, for instance, trainings need to be designed in a way to avoid frequent re-trainings and trainers of trainers can be called to share their expertise with their peers within government institutions. Finally, the next UNSDCF should explore the possibilities of adding sustainability to emergency activities.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted and key action identified

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The CF 2022-2026 includes sustainability in its Strategic Priority 3: "Climate resilience and sustainable use of natural resources"
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT 2021/10 Completed
9. Recommendation:

The preparation of the new UNSDCF should take momentum from the good practices developed for emergency work. These can be mobilised for planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation. The UNCT should continue to use the preparation of the UNDAF to stimulate communication, although not losing sight of the need to be swifter in this process. Moreover, the UNCT has to assure that task groups – Outcome, Joint Programmes, etc. – are active and do not overlap each other or demand additional efforts for meetings, communication, reporting, etc.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
ensure good practices developed for emergency work are taken into account in the Preparation of the new UNDSCF
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT/RCO 2021/12 Completed
10. Recommendation:

Agency and joint participation in multi-stakeholders thematic and task groups should continue, as well as more collaboration with government. The programme can absorb lessons from joint work/project implementation and use it to plan and revise the work with other development partners in the country. The work with the Government of Mozambique should be constantly aware of the need to improve the visibility of the UNSDCF alignment to government priorities, assuring that all or almost all government priorities are integrated in the framework. In order to foster improved coherence with the government priorities, the UNSDCF should improve the joint work with different ministries at planning, implementation and monitoring stages – the Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Plan and Ministry of Foreign Affairs – to assure efficiently shared communication and information and alignment.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted and key action identified 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The Indicators were chosen taking into consideration the National indicators (Including the countries SDG Indicator Framework) and available data.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
SP Leads 2021/12 Completed
Each SP was co-chaired by the UN and Government Counterparts.
[Added: 2021/12/10]
SP Leads 2021/12 Completed
11. Recommendation:
Until the end of the current UNDAF, the UNCT will have to monitor and closely follow-up the results still to be achieved.
Management Response: [Added: 2021/12/10]

Reccommendation accepted 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNCT to closely monitor results still to be achieved
[Added: 2021/12/10]
UNCT 2021/12 Completed

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