Terminal Evaluation of Belize Chemicals and Waste Management Project

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Belize
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
05/2019
Completion Date:
04/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
12,000

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Title Terminal Evaluation of Belize Chemicals and Waste Management Project
Atlas Project Number: 00079317
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Belize
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 04/2019
Planned End Date: 05/2019
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Sustainable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
SDG Goal
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
SDG Target
  • 12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
Evaluation Budget(US $): 12,000
Source of Funding: Project
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 11,560
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Hans M. Ewoldsen PhD ewoldsenh@aol.com
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Belize Chemicals and Waste Management Project
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Persistent Organic Pollutants
Project Type: MSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 5094
PIMS Number: 5158
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Fisheries, Forestry and Sustainable Development, Department of Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Pesticides Control Board
Countries: BELIZE
Lessons
1.

Flexibility should be included in project execution and decision making, and built into the project schedule, to allow for making adjstments in schedule or program implementation, as the need occurs.A hard and fast project schedule or execution plan can lead to severe consequences to the success of a project.

 


2.

When facilities are to be constructed or equipment procured, additional funding contingency should be provided or allocated in the initial or revised budgets.  This would avoid having to justify and obtain additional funding, which may be difficult to get.


3.

For the Chemicals and Solid Waste Project, given its complexity and the fact that facilities were to be designed and constructed, the schedule should have been four years instead of three.


4.

Green harvesting of sugar cane would be more attractive is the price of green harvested sugar cane were at a premium price.  This would probably require that “green harvested” granular sugar command a premium price at the sales outlet (grocery or wholesale stores), which in turn would have to experience a demand by the end buyers.  Difficult but not impossible.


5.

Shareholder incentive is best maintained through an accelerated decision-making process.


Findings
1.

Clarity and Completeness of Design The analysis of the results framework by the terminal evaluation indicated that the projects objectives and components were clear, practicable, and feasible with the overall project time frame. They were measurable, with ranges of result achievement noted. Within the framework, the targets were realistic and timely.


Tag: Relevance Programme/Project Design

2.

Capacity Evaluation and Improvement
In the project design, it was recognized that Belize entities had the basic capacity for addressing elements of the project, but that specific upgrading of capacity would be required in the areas of:

o Storage, packaging, permitting, shipment and arrangements for destruction of POPs wastes, principally PCB contaminated oils
o Design and construction of state of the practice waste transfer stations, and waste disposal landfills
o Identification and control / reduction of UPOPs, principally those generated at uncontrolled landfill sites where burning was occurring, and in the burning of agricultural wastes (principally sugar cane harvesting wastes)


To gain these capacity upgrades, the ProDoc includes discussion of the project acquiring support from national engineering and environmental firms and / or international consultants / contractors. This indicates that the capacities of the executing institutions were properly considered in the project design.


Tag: Programme/Project Design Private Sector Capacity Building

3.

Lessons from other relevant projects The technical evaluator did not find direct reference to lessons learned from other relevant projects, but from his previous project work with UNDP / GEF has gained a good understanding of the resources available to Country Offices, particularly the ability to access other similar projects globally, and to access the lessons that these other similar projects developed during their project implementation and execution. Thus, the Technical Evaluator assumed that relevant lessons learned were incorporated into the project design.


Tag: Knowledge management

4.

Counterpart Resources As far as can be determined from review of project documents and interviews with the stakeholders, the counterpart resources for the project, as known at the initiation of the project, had been correctly defined and put in place. As with any project during its lifetime, additional resource requirements are usually identified as well as some initial resources that may not be required. Thus, it is considered that the counterpart resources were correctly defined and provided at the initiation of the project.


Tag: Resource mobilization

5.

Implementation Arrangements
The implementation arrangements of the project included the assignment of the Department of Environment as the Executing Agency, with UNDP Belize in the role of Oversight and Guidance. Where necessary, department personnel or consultants would be hired to fill key roles in the project execution phases. UNDP was the Implementing Agency for the project, which had as its primary objectives:

1. Amendment of the Existing Legal Instruments and Strengthening Pesticides Law Enforcement
2. Strengthening the Capacity to Handle POPs Pesticides and Contaminated Sites 3. Raising Awareness of POPs Pesticides with Particular Reference to Waste and Contaminated Sites 1. Undertaking Ecologically Sound Measures to Eliminate Obsolete POP Pesticides
2. Policy and Legal Framework for the Management of Unintentionally Produced POPs (UPOPs)
3. Capacity Building and Technical Support 4. Municipal and Hazardous Waste Management 5. Public Awareness and Technical Networking 6. Landfills and Hazardous Waste Co-incineration
5. Inventory of Unintentionally Produced POPs

6. Medical Wastes Management
 


Tag: Sanitation Waste management Implementation Modality Policies & Procedures Capacity Building

6.

Relevance to GEF Strategic Objectives The project is directly relevant to three major GEF strategic objectives, those of:

1. Elimination of POPs chemicals and other obsolete pesticides, herbicides and hazardous chemicals from countries that still retain those substances within their boundaries
2. Management of solid wastes in an environmentally sustainable manner, thereby reducing the health hazard and environmental impacts that uncontrolled or poorly managed solid wastes can have on the inhabitants, human and natural environments of the country or regions.
3. Improvement of the livelihoods of the country’s citizens Relevance to National Strategies and Local Priorities


Tag: Sanitation Waste management Relevance Policies & Procedures

7.

Implementation Arrangements
Day to day project management was managed by a project manager, with support from a project assistant, with the project team based in an office building of the Department of Environment. However, direct oversight of the project management and implementation was carried out by the Department of Environment, as the project manager was contracted by Government of Belize (for duty within the Department of Environment). The project then contracted / seconded a suite of national experts to carry out project activities and generate the respective output deliverables in the form of technical reports.

 

 


Tag: Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Project and Programme management

8.

Execution, Including Stakeholder Ownership
Project Management The project was completed under National Implementation (NIM) modality arrangements. This means that the project management unit (the project manager and project assistant) was primarily accountable to the government execution partner, the Department of Environment. At the same time, the UNDP Country Office was responsible for providing implementation support and strong oversight. According to project stakeholders and participants (and as validated by the terminal evaluation), the project management team executed the project with a high degree of professionalism, transparency, communication, commitment, and enthusiasm. There was some delay in the initiation of the project, due to a change in senior project manager. Despite this challenge, the project management team persisted and prevailed, achieving the required outputs from the project.
Stakeholder Ownership / Partnership As of the terminal evaluation, the key stakeholders


Tag: Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Ownership Project and Programme management Country Government

9.

Stakeholder Ownership / Partnership As of the terminal evaluation, the key stakeholders at the local and regional level have become fully engaged with the project activities and have assumed ownership of the results - and the sustainability of those results. At the national level, the government technicians directly involved in the project activities have certainly taken ownership for the project results. For example, during the terminal evaluation the SIRI staff members directly responsible for agricultural initiative directed toward mechanical harvesting and fertilization / biocide application, were able to clearly demonstrate their capacity for conducting this work on a sustained basis after project completion. There remains, however, less certainty about the sense of “urgency” at the higher levels of government with respect to passage and enforcement of regulations and policy on chemicals and solid waste.


Tag: Sustainability Ownership Country Government

10.

Risk Assessment and Monitoring The Project Results Framework noted a set of risks that had to be considered during the inception and implementation of the project.


Tag: Waste management Monitoring and Evaluation Risk Management

11.

Flexibility and Adaptive Management FLEXIBILITY IS ONE OF THE GEF’S TEN OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES, AND ALL PROJECTS MUST BE IMPLEMENTED IN A FLEXIBLE MANNER TO MAXIMIZE EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS, AND TO ENSURE RESULTS-BASED, RATHER THAN OUTPUT-BASED APPROACH. THUS, DURING PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT MUST BE EMPLOYED TO ADJUST TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES.


Tag: Waste management Effectiveness Efficiency Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

12.

Financial Planning by Component and Delivery
TABLE 4, FOLLOWING, PRESENTS THE FINANCIAL BUDGET AND COMPILATION OF EXPENDITURES ON SPECIFIC OUTCOMES AND ACTIVITIES ON AN ANNUAL BASIS DURING THE LIFE OF THE PROJECT. THE END OF PROJECT ACTUAL EXPENDITURES FOR EACH OUTCOME ARE REPORTED AS BEING WITHIN TEN (10) PERCENT OF THE ORIGNIAL / MODIFIED BUDGETS FOR EACH OUTCOME. THIS DEMONSTRATES THAT THE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROLS FOR THE PROJECT WERE WELL PLANNED AND EXECUTED.
Table 4 - Annual and End of Project Budget and Financial Performance


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources

13.

Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation At the outset of the project, a Monitoring and Evaluation Inception Workshop was held, with participation from the Implementing Partner and Executing Agency, and representatives of the Stakeholder group. This allowed the guidelines to be worked out and implemented for the M&E program. From review of the Quarterly Reports, it is evident that adequate attention was paid to the M&E requirements and reporting of M&E activities is present in all Quarterly Reports. Adaptive management was applied to any issues that required attention, if reported in the Quarterly Reports.


Tag: Implementation Modality Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Programme management

14.

Impacts and Global Environmental Benefits
The beneficial effect on the environmental situation in Belize includes the following:

o Reduction in the burning of sugarcane harvesting wastes, with lessened particulates and UPOPs generation in the sugar cane region. Additional potential environmental health considerations could result from the lessened emissionsfeed shoreline pollution that migrates to Belize.


Tag: Waste management Effectiveness

15.

Key GEF Performance Parameters
Sustainability The sustainability of the project results into future phases of environmental protection, has been judged to be excellent. There are, however, a set of risks that should be understood and addressed if the results of the project and its approach are to be extended geographically to other regions of Belize or to other environmental factors (other than chemicals and solid wastes) that exist or may develop in Belize.


Tag: Sustainability

16.

Financial Risks
Any future program that addresses the chemicals and solid waste issues in other parts of Belize, or which addresses enviromnetal issues similar to those of the project, and wants to carry sustainablity forward, will require adequate financing. The Government of Belize, at the present time, has other competing programs for funding, and may not be able to place much funding toward environmental issues. Thus, expernal funding from UNDP, GEF,the European Union, or other funding sources will be required. This is at least a moderate risk to sustainability of the program.


Tag: Waste management Sustainability Bilateral partners

17.

Socio-political Risks
Socio–political risks are judged to be low, as the populace would undoubtedly welcome any programme that addresses the well-being of the citizens of Belize or improves the state of the environment. The long-term economic growth of Belize (next 10 to 20 years) will be in large part controlled by the growth of the tourism and agricultural sectors, with light industry growth having significant input. These sectors will require well managed waste and chemicals management, agricultural adoption and adaptation of improved agricultural methods, and preservation of the natural environment (forest, water, air, biota, and fisheries}. Unless there is severe disruption of the socioeconomic or political situation current in Belize, the sociopolitical risks are judged to be low. No evident severe risks have been identified by the technical evaluator, nor by the stakeholders interviewed.


Tag: Site Conservation / Preservation Waste management Risk Management

18.

Institutional and Governance Risks
Institutional and governance risks could be significant to the sustainability of the project objectives. Legislators and policy setters have many issues to address and may feel that the waste and chemicals situation in the country has been addressed for the time being. Any new project to extend the consideration of sugar cane harvesting hazards, or address smaller solid waste issues, may not get institutional and governance attention.


Tag: Sustainability Policies & Procedures

19.

Environmental Risks
The environmental risk is judged small, as there is reported to be strong support for programs that continue to improve the environment of Belize Impacts and Global Environmental Benefits The beneficial effect on the environmental situation in Belize includes the following: o Reduction in the burning of sugarcane harvesting wastes, with lessened particulates and UPOPs generation in the sugar cane region. Additional potential environmental health considerations could result from the lessened emissions


Tag: Waste management Sustainability

20.

Gender Equality and Mainstreaming
The review of the documents provided for the Terminal Review, and the interviews conducted indicate that gender equality was not directly addressed during the project life, although the benefits of the project support gender equality. The staffing of the project was consistent with full gender considerations. Mainstreaming of gender equality was not specifically a programmatic element.


Tag: Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming

Recommendations
1

Provision should be made in the near future for incentives to enable the separation and recycling of e-waste(this is understood to be considered in the near future)

2

The issue of roadside waste (litter, agricultural waste, rural road solid waste), should be addressed in a subsequent follow-on initiative.

3

A strategy for plastics wastes needs to be developed and implemented (this is reported to be under consideration by Parliament, and scheduled for enactment in April 2019)

4

More public education on the issues of solid waste, chemicals, and environmental protection would be beneficial to all segments of the population of Belize.

5

The issue of expanding the elimination of burning of agricultural sugar cane harvesting waste should be discussed with the Sugar Industry Research & Development Institute (SIRDI), and a program of promoting the initiative adopted.

6

A review should be made, and conclusions drawn regarding the feasibility of obtaining a higher price for “Green Sugar Cane”.

7

The government and SIRDI should initiate discussions on expanded purchase and rental of mechanized equipment for pesticide and fertilizer application to sugar plantations, this would result in lessened volumes of pesticides and fertilizers being used, with corresponding reduction in costs to the farmers.

1. Recommendation:

Provision should be made in the near future for incentives to enable the separation and recycling of e-waste(this is understood to be considered in the near future)

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Belize Solid Waste Management project sets in place a functioning landfill site supported by transfer station which allows for sorting for recycling. Transfer stations for Belize central corridor in place. Stations for southern Belize under development.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Implement national solid waste management project
[Added: 2020/03/04]
Government of Belize 2019/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The implementation of the National Solid Waste Management Programme is ongoing. Phase I which responds to the Belize Central Corridor which hosts Belize's largest population centers is completed.]
It is expected that the Government of Belize will address solid waste management across the country in coming years History
2. Recommendation:

The issue of roadside waste (litter, agricultural waste, rural road solid waste), should be addressed in a subsequent follow-on initiative.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Project under consideration

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop follow-on activity
[Added: 2020/03/04] [Last Updated: 2020/07/27]
Government of Belize 2020/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: Within the 2020 COVID19 environment, this action is no longer prioritized within national programming. As a result,a recommendation is made for this temporary recommendation.]
History
3. Recommendation:

A strategy for plastics wastes needs to be developed and implemented (this is reported to be under consideration by Parliament, and scheduled for enactment in April 2019)

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Ban on Single use plastic in place

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
GoB passed legislation government the banned use of single use plastics in Belize
[Added: 2020/03/04]
Government of Belize 2019/12 Completed
4. Recommendation:

More public education on the issues of solid waste, chemicals, and environmental protection would be beneficial to all segments of the population of Belize.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Action taken up jointly by the Department of Environment (DoE) and Solid Waste Management Authority (SWAMA)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Implementation of Public Education Campaign
[Added: 2020/03/04]
Government of Belize 2019/12 Completed
5. Recommendation:

The issue of expanding the elimination of burning of agricultural sugar cane harvesting waste should be discussed with the Sugar Industry Research & Development Institute (SIRDI), and a program of promoting the initiative adopted.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

SIRDI continues to promote green harvesting and have worked to expand the acreage of sugar plantations now only relying on a single control burn per cropping season. This replaces traditional practices of two burns.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Promote green harvesting Promote single burn systems
[Added: 2020/03/04]
SIRDI 2019/12 Completed
6. Recommendation:

A review should be made, and conclusions drawn regarding the feasibility of obtaining a higher price for “Green Sugar Cane”.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Cane farms in northern Belize are Fair Trade certified, i.e. they already benefit from   Fair-trade Premiums for sales of Fair-trade cane sugar. Linked to their certification is actions which invest in sustainable production system. Much of the work associated with climate change adaptation, green harvesting, and reduce chemicals input is associated with their fair-trade certification.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Explore additional opportunities for certification and niche markets supporting “green sugar cane”
[Added: 2020/03/04] [Last Updated: 2020/04/16]
Sugar cane Farmers Association Belize Sugar Industry BSI/ASR 2019/12 Completed This is an ongoing initiative on the part of the industry. History
7. Recommendation:

The government and SIRDI should initiate discussions on expanded purchase and rental of mechanized equipment for pesticide and fertilizer application to sugar plantations, this would result in lessened volumes of pesticides and fertilizers being used, with corresponding reduction in costs to the farmers.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/10/25] [Last Updated: 2020/12/03]

Agreements in place for support from processors BSI/ASR

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Provision of support to farmers
[Added: 2020/03/04]
SIRDI/ BSI/ASR/ Sugar cane farmers 2019/12 Completed A formal agreement exists between farmers and BSI/ASR. This agreement covers investments in extension support as well as the use of machinery to support efficient sugar cane cropping. History

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